<p>Panel A: ROS levels after addition of the NAD(P)H oxidase-4 (NOX-4) inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) in cells exposed to CSE for 3 h and 24 h. Cells were pre-incubated with DPI at the concentration of 10 µM for 1 h and then washed prior to the addition of CSE. Panel B: ROS levels in cells pre-treated for 6 h with lycopene (2 µM) and, then exposed to CSE (0.5%) for 3 h and 24 h. Panel C: representative western blot analysis of NOX-4 in cells pre-treated for 6 h with lycopene (2 µM) and, then exposed to CSE (0.5%) for 3 h and 24 h; the values indicated represented the ratio NOX-4/actin. In panels A and B, values were the means ± SEM of five experiments. Values not sharing the same letter were significantly different (P<0.005, Tukey's test).</p
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