Design and Synthesis of Irreversible Analogues of Bardoxolone Methyl for the Identification of Pharmacologically Relevant Targets and Interaction Sites


Semisynthetic triterpenoids such as bardoxolone methyl (methyl-2-cyano 3,12-dioxooleano-1,9-dien-28-oate; CDDO-Me) (<b>4</b>) are potent inducers of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways, including those regulated by the transcription factor Nrf2. However, the reversible nature of the interaction between triterpenoids and thiols has hindered attempts to identify pharmacologically relevant targets and characterize the sites of interaction. Here, we report a shortened synthesis and SAR profiling of <b>4</b>, enabling the design of analogues that react irreversibly with model thiols, as well as the model protein glutathione <i>S</i>-transferase P1, in vitro. We show that one of these analogues, CDDO-epoxide (<b>13</b>), is comparable to <b>4</b> in terms of cytotoxicity and potency toward Nrf2 in rat hepatoma cells and stably modifies specific cysteine residues (namely, Cys-257, -273, -288, -434, -489, and -613) within Keap1, the major repressor of Nrf2, both in vitro and in living cells. Supported by molecular modeling, these data demonstrate the value of <b>13</b> for identifying site(s) of interaction with pharmacologically relevant targets and informing the continuing development of triterpenoids as novel drug candidates

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oai:figshare.com:article/3100474Last time updated on 2/12/2018

This paper was published in FigShare.

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