Designing an Introductory Course for JSL Teacher Development: Teaching Japanese to Children Crossing Borders


JSL カリキュラムは、「日本語の学校での学習活動に参加する力(「学ぶ力」)」の育成をめざした外国人児童生徒のための新しいカリキュラムである。教員をめざす学生等がこれに基づいた授業を実践するには、体系的な教育や研修、実践的な学習が必要である。本稿では、JSLカリキュラムの基本構想(文部科学省, 2003c)に基づいた授業を行うのに必要な知識・能力はどのようなものかを考察し、その結果を学部におけるJSLカリキュラム入門の授業を想定したシラバスとして提示し、その指導の一方法を考案した。シラバスは日本語指導の初級者を対象とした教育内容を選定し、4つの柱を立てて構成した。第一はこれまでの日本語指導のあり方を再考し、その根本的な問題点や課題を探ること、第二は新しい教育理念に基づいたJSLカリキュラムの特色や利点を理解すること、第三はJSLカリキュラムの考え方に沿った授業作りや活動の方法、及び、評価を考えること、第四はJSLカリキュラムの指導理念や評価の方法について、認知能力と言語発達、学習言語と言語習得、外国語教授法等の理論的側面から考察することである。授業は、「考える・気づく・見直す・調べる・分析する・創る・関連づける」等の活動を通じて学べるように考案した。The purpose of this study is to design an introductory course for JSL teacher development. The course plans to provide a basic knowledge about education for JSL children at school in Japan. It pays special attention to creating a class based on “JSL Curriculum” developed by the MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology). This study first overviews the educational background and characteristics of the JSL curriculum, and then presents the trial syllabus for the course. The objective of JSL curriculum is to nurture language competency for participating in leaning activities in schools. It integrates second language education (Japanese language) and subject content education (such as math, science and so on). It is a new and different type of curriculum which consists of various AUs (Activity Units). AU is a kind of linguistic tool to provide the teachers ideas how they combine the language skills and subject education in teaching. In order to teach JSL children at school, teachers are expected to grasp the difficulties that JSL children (students) encounter. The central issue here is that even children have the language skill necessary for day to day living, including conversations with friends and informal interactions. But they do not always have the language skill necessary to understand and discuss content in the classroom. The former is called BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills), and the latter, CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency). JSL curriculum has been developed to solve this problem. It has dual focus on subject content (mathematics) and language (Japanese) education. In order to practice JSL curriculum, teachers need to understand the basic ideas and characteristics of it. They also need to learn how to create classes and how to practice teaching. The author devised the trial course syllabus for undergraduate students including novice JSL teacher (pre- and in- service) trainees to build the basic knowledge essential for the practice. The trial syllabus consists of four basic parts. The first part introduces educational background of JSL curriculum development by MEXT. It reviews the methods of JSL supplemental teaching such as “Toridashi”, “Hairikomi”, and “Tukyu”. The main agendum is to discuss merits and demerits of teaching Japanese language and subjects separately. The second part focuses on the comprehension of JSL curriculum, fundamental ideas, underlying principles, and AU (Activity Unit). It also pays attention to the significance and necessity of integrating language skills and subject education. The third part explores how to practice JSL curriculum in school. The design of the class, teaching plans, classroom activities, and evaluation are discussed and created. The final part assesses JSL curriculum from the theoretical perspective such as cognitive development, first and second language acquisition, approaches and methods in foreign language teaching. Since this syllabus is only one of the examples for novice teachers, development of the variation or more advanced one is necessary

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oaioai:aue.repo.nii.ac.jp:00003124Last time updated on 2/9/2018View original full text link

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