Introduction: Primary hyperparathyroïdism is observed in 35 to 44 subjects/ 100000 persons. The increased production of parathyroid hormones is secondary to primary glandular modifications consisting mainly in adenomas. The authors report a clear-cell hyperplasia causing primary hyperparathyroidism. Observation: We report the case of a 25-year-old man who was admitted to explore pathologic fractures of the left arm and a malignant hypercalcaemia. Complementary laboratory tests revealed primary hyperparathyroidism. A multiple endocrine neoplasia was excluded by radiologic examinations. Cervical ultra-sound examination revealed 2 parathyroid adenomas and per-operative exploration showed 3 « adenomas ». Microscopic examination of the 4 parathyroid glands specimen concluded to a clear cell hyperplasia. Conclusion: Clear cell hyperplasia is a benign cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. The diagnosis is based upon histologic findings and examination of the 4 glands
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