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Tracking the mind's image in the brain : combining evidence from fMRI and rTMS

By Alexander Sack

Abstract

Die Dissertation kombiniert die Methode der funktionellen Magnetresonanztomographie (fMRT) zur genauen räumlichen Lokalisation aufgabenkorrelierter parietaler Aktivierungen mit Transkranieller Magnetstimulation (TMS) zur systematischen Untersuchung der funktionellen Relevanz dieser Aktivierungen für die tatsächliche Leistungsfähigkeit. Die experimentelle Kombination beider Methoden ermöglichte die gezielte Stimulation der im tMRT identifizierten, mit visuospatialen Fähigkeiten assoziierten Hirnareale. Durch die systematische Auswertung der TMS-induzierten visuospatialen Leistungsveränderungen wurde die spezifische funktionelle Bedeutung dieser Hirnareale für visuospatiale Leistungen experimentell untersucht. Der zugrunde gelegte Versuchsplan umfasste sowohl visuospatiale Leistungen auf der Grundlage visuell dargebotener als auch mental vorgestellter Aufgaben. Dies ermöglichte die systematische Untersuchung, ob und inwieweit mentale visuospatiale Informationsverarbeitung die gleichen oder ähnliche Aktivierungsmuster im fMRT aufweist wie visuospatiale Verarbeitung visuell dargebotener Stimuli, und ob sich diese Aktivierungsmuster vorgestellter Stimuli unter dem Einfluss von rTMS in gleicher Weise als funktionell relevant erweisen. Aufgrund der separaten unilateralen Stimulation beider Hemisphären konnten darüber hinaus die unterschiedlichen behavioralen Auswirkungen einer Aktivierungsunterdrückung des linken und rechten Parietalkortex systematisch untersucht werden. Obwohl die Ausführung visuospatialer Aufgaben, sowohl auf der Grundlage visuell dargebotener als auch mental vorgestellter Stimuli, im fMRT mit einer bilateralen Aktivierung im Parietalkortex korrelierte, führte lediglich die TMS-induzierte temporäre Unterbrechung der neuronalen Aktivierung im rechten Parietalkortex zu einer signifikanten Verschlechterung in der Leistungsfähigkeit der damit assoziierten visuospatialen Aufgaben. Auf der Grundlage dieser Ergebnisse wurde ein modulares Modell der visuospatialen Imagination formuliert, in welchem den aufgabenkorrelierten bilateralen Aktivierungen aufgrund ihrer raum-zeitlichen Separierbarkeit unterschiedliche mentale Prozesse und aufgrund der mit TMS aufgezeigten funktionellen hemisphärischen Asymmetrie parietaler Aktivierung für visuospatiale Informationsverarbeitung unterschiedliche Kompensationsmechanismen zugeordnet wurden

Topics: ddc:610
Year: 2003
OAI identifier: oai:publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de:5371

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