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Temporomandibularne ozljede i poremećaji u sportu

By Vjekoslav Jerolimov

Abstract

Orofacial injuries are common in sporting activities, depending on type of sport and many other factors. Temporomandibular injuries and disorders have been found in 2 – 6 % of all orofacial injuries cases, and they are the result of macrotraumas and microtraumas of the mandible, the temporomandibular joint and adjacent anatomic structures. The results of such traumas are of different symptomatology and can lead to a temporary or permanent cessation of sporting activity. Most injuries in sports, including orofacial and temporomandibular disorders, are predictable and therefore preventable. Measures for preventing orofacial injuries and temporomandibular disorders in sporting activities include various types of protection appliances: extraoral, interdental (intraoral) and combined mouth and teeth protectors. Interdental sports guards (mouthguards) can be stock or ready-made, mouth-formed or custom-made mouthguards. These mouthguards, mutually different in quality, play a very important role in prevention of orofacial and temporomandibular tissue injuries. Use of mouthguards significantly reduces the number of orofacial tissue injuries, and also reduces the severity of sustained injuries. Sports injuries, including those to orofacial and temporomandibular area, regardless of whether they are incurred in recreational or competitive sport, require multidisciplinary approach, both in diagnostics and treatment and in implementation of prevention measures. Sports physicians, coaches, sports officials, parents and athletes themselves, should also be permanently educated on the exceptional importance of prevention measures, thus making the role of dentist in sport unavoidable.Ozljede orofacijalnog sustava u sportu su učestale, ovisno o vrsti sportske discipline te drugim okolnostima. Temporomandibularne ozljede i poremećaji čine oko 2 do 6% svih orofacijalnih ozljeda, a rezultat su makrotrauma i mikrotrauma donje čeljusti, čeljusnog zgloba i okolnih anatomskih struktura. Posljedice takvih trauma raznovrsne su simptomatologije, koje mogu biti uzrokom privremenog ili trajnog prekida bavljenja sportom. Većina ozljeda u sportu, pa tako i onih orofacijalnih te temporomandibularnih poremećaja, nastaje iz predvidivih razloga i na njih se može preventivno utjecati. U preventivne mjere spada korištenje različitih oblika zaštitnih sredstava: ekstraoralnih, interdentalnih (intraoralnih) i kombiniranih štitnika za usta i zube. Najširu uporabu imaju interdentalni štitnici, a oni mogu biti gotovi, polugotovi ili individualno izrađeni. Imaju raznovrsne uloge u sprječavanju ozljeda orofacijalnih tkiva u sportu, a korištenjem takvih štitnika učestalost se i težina orofacijalnih, odnosno temporomandibularnih, ozljeda znatno smanjuje. Sportske ozljede, pa tako i one orofacijalnog sustava, bez obzira na to nastaju li u rekreativnom ili natjecateljskom sportu, zahtijevaju multidisciplinarni pristup, kako pri dijagnostici i liječenju, tako i u provođenju preventivnih mjera. Sportski liječnici, treneri, sportski djelatnici, roditelji i sami sportaši trebali bi se trajno educirati i upućivati u iznimnu važnost preventivnih mjera, pri čemu je uloga stomatologa u sportu nezaobilazna

Topics: sport; orofacial injuries; temporomandibular disorders; prevention; custom-made mouthguards, sport; temporomandibularne ozljede; temporomandibularni poremećaji; prevencija; individualni interdentalni štitnici
Publisher: Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Year: 2010
OAI identifier: oai:hrcak.srce.hr:51494

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