MENTORUNTERRICHT IN DER GRUNDSCHULE

Abstract

Udanašnjoj osnovnoj školi u Hrvatskoj dominira frontalna nastava u razredno-predmetno-satnom sustavu. Ta je nastava više orijentirana na učitelja negoli na učenika. Tu je važno što radi učitelj i kako se realizira program, a učenici uglavnom, sjede, slušaju i gledaju. Autor je proučavao deset godina kakav je u takvoj nastavi položaj djece s posebnim edukativnim potrebama - i djece s teškoćama u razvoju kao i djece u koje je uočena natprosječnost u svim područjima ili talentiranost za neku aktivnost. Proučeno je 95 slučajeva djece s teškoćama u razvoju i 25 natprosječnih i talentiranih učenika. U priloženim su tablicama osnovni podaci samo za 20 slučajeva djece s teškoćama u razvoju i 10 slučajeva iznadprosječne i talentirane djece. Sustavnim promatranjem u nastavnim situacijama, proučavanjem školske dokumentacije i učeničkih radova te intervjuiranjem djece, roditelja i učitelja, analizirani su načini pružanja instruktivne pomoći takvim učenicima, odnosno nastavne metode i strategije. Svakako je najprimjerenije osiguranje mentorske pomoći takvim učenicima. Autor prikazuje narav takve nastave i upozorava na teškoće koje prate pokušaje učitelja da mentorski vode i usmjeravaju učenike s posebnim edukativnim potrebama u uvjetima zajedničke nastave.Currently, in elementary schools in Croatia, a type of frontal teaching dominates in a c1ass-subject-lesson system. Such teaching is more teacher-oriented than directed towards schoolchildren. It is important what the teacher is doing and how the curriculum is carried out, and the pupils mostly sit, listen and watch. The author has been studying for the past ten years the position, in such circumstances, of children with special educational needs - and children with developmental difficulties as well as very talented children in all or certain fields of activity. A sample of 95 children with developmental difficulties and 25 above-averagely talented pupils were analyzed. In the tables included, the basic data for 20 children with developmental difficulties and 10 very talented children are presented. Through systematic observation of the process of teaching, the examination of school documents and pupils\u27 works, as well as through interviews with children, parents and teachers, the modes of providing instructive assistance to such children, in other words, teaching methods and strategies were analyzed. By far the most adequate path to follow is ensuring mentoriai assistance for such children. The author explains the nature of such teaching and warns of the difficulties resultinq from the teachers\u27 attempts as mentors in leading and directing children with special educational needs in circumstances of communal teaching.In den Grundschulen Kroatiens ist heute die frontale Unterrichtsweise dominierend. Diese Art des Unterrichts ist mehr am Lehrer als am SchOler orientiert: wichtig ist, was der Lehrer macht und wie das Unterrichtsprogramm realisiert wird, wahrend die SchOler hauptsachlich stillsitzen, zuhoren und zuschauen. Der Verfasser widmete sich zehn Jahre lang der Untersuchung von Kindern, die in edukativer Hinsicht besondere BedOrfnisse zeigen - Kindern mit Entwicklungsstorungen sowie solchen, die Oberdurchschnitlliche Leistungen oder eine einschlagige Begabung aufweisen. Untersucht wurden 95 Kinder mit Entwicklungsstorungen sowie 25 Oberdurchschnitllich gute und begabte SchOler. Die beigefOgten Tabel/en enthalten wichtigste Informationen nur zu 20 Fallen mit Entwicklungsstorungen und 10 Fallen mit Oberdurchschnitllichen Leistungen und Begabungen. Durch systematisches Beobachten in konkreten Unterrichtssituationen, Durchsehen der Schulakten und der SchOlerarbeiten, ferner durch Interviews mit Kindern, Eltern und Lehrern analysierte man die Moglichkeiten instruktiver Hilfeleistungen fOr solche Kinder, bzw. Unterrichtsmethoden und -strategien. Am angemessensten ist natOriich, wenn solchen SchOlern die Hilfe eines Mentors zuteil wird. Der Verfasser stellt diese Unterrichtsform vor und verweist auf Schwierigkeiten, mit denen sich Lehrer auseinanderzusetzen haben in ihrem BemOhen als Mentor, SchOler mit besonderen edukativen BedOrfnissen zu leiten

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