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Research and Implementation on Dynamic Requirements Traceability

By 董刘

Abstract

需求跟踪是需求工程的重要组成部分,为软件开发过程提供了有力的支持,它有利于确认系统的需求是否实现,管理需求变更和软件制品变更之间的相互影响,是实现有效的软件管理,提高软件制品质量的一个重要因素。传统的静态需求跟踪使用人工建立和维护需求跟踪关系,当软件规模增大时,面临着成本过高,跟踪链难以维护等问题。随着需求变更的发展,导致跟踪链中的错误越来越多,需求跟踪难以为继。为了解决静态需求跟踪的这些缺点,提出了动态需求跟踪方法。动态需求跟踪使用信息检索、自然语言处理等技术,自动化地建立需求和工作产品之间的跟踪关系,完成了大部分需要手工完成的工作,提高了需求跟踪的效率。然而动态需求跟踪的各种方法也都存在着自己的局限和不足,尤其是动态需求跟踪的精度难以保证,制约了在实际的软件开发过程中的应用。本文深入细致的研究了现有的动态跟踪技术,指出了这些技术的应用范围和局限性,分析了动态跟踪精度问题的起因,探讨了改善动态跟踪效果的方法。基于以上的分析,本文设计并实现了动态需求跟踪工具。该工具使用信息检索技术来实现跟踪关系的建立,使用向量空间模型等信息检索模型计算需求文档和工作产品之间的相似度,通过自动翻译解决中文文本和英文代码之间的匹配问题。针对动态需求跟踪过程中,代码元数据不足导致的跟踪精度问题,该工具引入代码注释结合代码元数据信息进行相似度计算,改善了跟踪效果。本文最后通过使用实际的项目数据进行实验,验证了动态跟踪工具的效果。Requirements Traceability is an important part of Requirements Engineering, providing powerful support for software development process. It helps to confirm whether the system requirements have been implemented, managers the impacts between the requirements' changes and the software products' changes. It is an important way to implement effective software management and improve software quality. The traditional static Requirements Traceability establishes and maintains the traceability links by manual, faces the problems of high costs and hard to maintain in a large software project. When requirements changes, the traceability links' errors grows, makes requirements traceability hard to process. To solve those problems, Dynamic Requirements Traceability was proposed. Dynamic Requirements Traceability adopts the technologies such as Information Retrieval and Natural Language Processing, to automatically establish the traceability links, finishes most of the jobs originally done by manual, improve the efficiency of requirements traceability. However, Dynamic Requirements Traceability methods have their own problems; the most important problem is the low precision, which prevents Dynamic Requirements Traceability from being applied to real software projects. This thesis deeply studies the current methods of Dynamic Requirements Traceability, points out their scopes of application and shortages, analyses the reason of precision problem, and discusses some ways of improving the accuracy. Base on the analysis above, this research design and implement Dynamic Requirements Traceability Tool. This tool establishes the requirements traces via Information Retrieval, computes the similarity using Information Retrieval Model such as Vector Space Model, and traces the links of Chinese documents with auto language translation. Further, this tool uses code comments accompanying with code metadata to compute the traceability links, solving the precision problem caused by lack of code metadata. At last, we process an experiment to validate the effect of Dynamic Requirements Traceability Tool

Topics: 计算机软件与理论, 需求跟踪, 动态需求跟踪, 信息检索, 动态需求跟踪工具, 暂无
Year: 2008
OAI identifier: oai:ir.iscas.ac.cn:311060/7488
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