STUDI KEKAYAAN JENIS LUMUT KERAK (LICHENES) PADA PERKEBUNAN PALA RAKYAT DI KECAMATAN MEUKEK, KABUPATEN ACEH SELATAN

Abstract

ABSTRAKPenelitian ini mengkaji kekayaan jenis lumut kerak (Lichenes) pada perkebunan pala rakyat di Kecamatan Meukek, Kabupaten Aceh Selatan. Lumut kerak merupakan gabungan antara alga dan cendawan, sehingga secara morfologi dan fisiologi merupakan satu kesatuan. Lumut kerak termasuk tumbuhan epifit yang dapat hidup pada suhu rendah maupun tinggi. Di Kecamatan Meukek, Kabupaten Aceh Selatan banyak dijumpai tanaman pala yang tumbuh di perkebunan rakyat. Namun, hingga saat ini belum ada informasi mengenai data keberadaan dan kekayaan jenis lumut kerak pada tanaman pala rakyat yang terdapat di Kecamatan Meukek, Kabupaten Aceh Selatan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan data mengenai tipe morfologi talus dan kekayaan jenis lumut kerak pada perkebunan pala rakyat di Kecamatan Meukek, Kabupaten Aceh Selatan. Metode yang digunakan adalah survei eksploratif dan pemilihan lokasi pengambilan sampel (desa) dilakukan secara purposive sampling. Tipe morfologi talus lumut kerak yang didapat ada tiga tipe, yaitu: crustose, foliose dan frusticose. Lokasi penelitian terbagi dua yaitu: sembilan plot pada kawasan dekat hutan dan sembilan plot di kawasan pesisir. Delapan dari sepuluh jenis lumut kerak yang ada terdapat di kawasan pesisir, yaitu: Platythecium dimorphodes, Verrucaria mucosa, Megalospora tuberculosa, Phyllospora furfuracea, Megalospora sulphurata, Coccocarpia erythroxyli, Heterodermia japonica, dan Lecanora tropica. Sedangkan lima dari sepuluh lumut kerak terdapat di kawasan dekat hutan, yaitu: Platythecium dimorphodes, Verrucaria mucosa, Graphis subtenella, Coegonium lateum, dan Phyllospora sulphurata.Kata kunci : Lumut kerak, tanaman pala, identifikasi, kekayaan jenisABSTRACTThe research has about diversity of lichens species (Lichenes) in local nutmeg plantations at Meukek District, South Aceh Regency. Lichen is combination between alga and fungi, so by morphological and physiological, it is a unity. Lichen is classified as epiphyte plant. Lichens can live either in low or high temperature. The problem statement of this study is that the nutmeg tree trunk is a substrate that can be utilized by lichen as host plant. At Meukek District, South Aceh Regency, nutmeg tree are commonly found at local estate. However, until now there is no information about the presence and diversity of lichens species at local nutmeg plantation located at Meukek District, South Aceh Regency. The host plant was nutmeg tree (Myristica fragrans Houtt). The benefit of the research was to obtain information and gain knowledge about morphological types of thallus and the diversity of lichens found at local nutmeg plantation is Meukek District, South Aceh Regency. This study was purposed to obtain information related to the morphological type of thallus and the diversity of lichens species at local nutmeg plantation in Meukek District, South Aceh Regency. This study was using explorative survey method, and the selection of village for sampling location was done by purposive sampling. Identification of lichens was using spot test, microcrystal test, and apothecium-slice test. The result of this study showed that at local nutmeg plantation, found three types of lichens thallus morphology, which are crustose, foliose, and fruticose. There are ten species of lichens, i.e. Coccocarpia erythroxyli, Platythecium dimorphodes, Graphis subtenella, Megalospora tubercolosa, Megalospora sulphurata, Heterodermia japonica, Phyllospora furfuracea, Verrucaria mucosa, Lecanora tropica, and Coenogonium lateum. Key words: lichens, nutmeg, identification, species diversityBanda Ace

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