Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Objective Supination deformity in obstetric brachial plexus injury can have debilitating consequences for the functionality of the hand. Surgical treatment by a forearm osteotomy has a recurrence rate of 20 to 42%. As a complement to forearm osteotomy, a biceps rerouting may improve outcome. Methods Children with residual brachial plexus injury, who had a forearm osteotomy for a supination contracture and had a postoperative decrease of pronation to 50 degrees or less, were indicated for a biceps rerouting. Shoulder, elbow and hand function, biceps strength, Mallet score, and Raimondi score were assessed with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Results Five patients (median age: 8 years; range: 4-10) underwent biceps rerouting between 2008 and 2012. Median follow-up time was 6.8 years (range: 3.2-7.0 years). Passive pronation increased in all cases (median 0 degree at baseline to 80 degrees at final follow-up). Active pronation also increased. Active median wrist extension was -30 degrees at baseline and 45 degrees at follow-up. Biceps strength and grip strength improved in two cases. No recurrences were present. Conclusion The sequentially planned surgical treatment of forearm osteotomy and biceps rerouting should be considered in the treatment of severe supination deformity, as it is effective in improving pronation of the forearm and hand function, without recurrence at follow-u
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