Background/Aims: Currently available rodent models of peritoneal sclerosis are not based on clinically relevant factors: renal failure in combination with exposure to bioincompatible fluids. Our aim was to develop a chronic peritoneal infusion model of peritoneal sclerosis in rats with renal failure. Methods: Male Wistar rats underwent a catheter implantation and a 70% nephrectomy. They were randomly divided into three peritoneal infusion groups: chlorhexidine gluconate/ethanol (CGE) + Dianeal (Baxter Healthcare, Castlebar, Ireland), CGE + buffer (Physioneal without glucose; Baxter, Nivelles, Belgium) and Dianeal alone. After 8 weeks a peritoneal permeability test was performed and omental tissue was obtained for morphometrics. Results: The CGE + Dianeal group (n = 6) and CGE + buffer (n = 6) group showed high peritoneal clearances of small solutes and proteins, ultrafiltration failure, impaired free water transport, severe fibrosis and high vessel counts, but the groups did not differ significantly. The Dianeal group (n = 6) showed significantly lower clearances of small solutes and proteins, normal ultrafiltration and sodium sieving, and significantly lower fibrosis scores and vessel counts. Conclusions: Abnormalities seen in peritoneal sclerosis can be induced in a peritoneal infusion model in rats with renal failure. However, the addition of a bioincompatible dialysis solution had no contributing role, probably because the effects were overruled by those of CG
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