Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Pre-emptive infrared countermeasures

By J. Jackman


The aim of this PhD is to investigate pre-emptive flare release compared to reactive flare release and their efficacy as a countermeasure device in the protection of fast jet and transport aircraft against the MANPAD threat. Implicit in this is to study the optimum release time of the flare decoy. Consequently, this also raises the question of whether flares of reduced payload size can be as effective as standard flares when released at this optimum time. To achieve these aims the initial step is to develop models for the different types of Man-Portable Air-Defence (MANPAD) systems and the IR seekers they utilise. This also requires the simulation of the full pre-launch process, namely the acquisition of the target to obtain lock-on then the application of lead and super elevation to give a more realistic model of the firing sequence. Two target models are also developed, a fast jet (AMX-A1) and a transport aircraft (C130), with realistic positions and ejection characteristics for the countermeasure (CM) dispensers. The next stage includes a counter-countermeasure (CCM) capability in the IR seekers. The first is a track angle bias with values optimised for the two aircraft models. Second is the development of a two-colour seeker with signal processors designed for both a spinscan and a conscan system. Using all MANPAD models flares are released at intervals throughout the engagements to find the optimum firing time and the simulations repeated for flares with reduced peak intensity and burn time. The results show that flare release around the time of missile launch is effective against most threats, even the more advanced MANPADs with CCMs. Also, that for reduced performance flares maintaining the burn time is perhaps more important than the peak intensity

Year: 2012
OAI identifier:
Provided by: Cranfield CERES

Suggested articles


  1. (2006). The anatomy of the doi
  2. (2005). Political-Military Affairs. The MANPADS Menace: Combating the Threat to Global Aviation from Man-Portable Air Defense Systems Fact Sheet :
  3. (2006). Congressional Research Service Report for Congress RL31741. Homeland Security: Protecting Airliners from Terrorist Missiles.
  4. (2010). Wikileaks releases 'confirm Afghanistan MANPADS threat'.
  5. (2003). Review. Mombasa Attack Highlights Increasing MANPADs Threat.
  6. (2005). Tristars upgraded with defensive systems.
  7. (1969). Infrared System Engineering. London :
  8. (1999). Introduction to Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems.
  9. (2008). Electro Optics and Infrared Sensors course notes.
  10. Handbook of Infrared Optical Materials. London : doi
  11. (1993). Sources of Radiation Volume 1.
  12. Electro-Optical Systems Design, Analysis,
  13. (1993). Passive Electro-Optical Systems Volume 5.
  14. (1993). Atmospheric Propogation of Radiation Volume 2.
  15. (1966). Reticles in Electro Optical Devices. doi
  16. (1959). The technique of spatial filtering. doi
  17. (1981). Digital simulation of reticle systems. doi
  18. (1971). Expressions for signal and background induced noise with space filters. doi
  19. (1971). Infrared Systems: II. Accuracy of angle measurement. doi
  20. (2010). The interaction in the development of optical missile seekers and jammer technology. doi
  21. (2003). Reticles-Rotating Systems. Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering :
  22. (1994). Simulation of reticle seekers by means of an image processing system. doi
  23. (1961). Optimum modultaion characteristics for amplitude-modulated and frequency-modulated infrared systems. doi
  24. (1991). Parameters of spinning AM reticles. doi
  25. (2003). Reticle Based Missile Seekers, Encylcopedia of Optical Engineering :
  26. (2011). Jane's Land-Based Air Defence.
  27. (2011). [Online] (accessed
  28. (2003). Reticles-Nutating Systems. Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering :
  29. (1991). Parameters of spinning FM reticles. doi
  30. (1988). Parameter analysis for frequency-modulation reticle doi
  31. (2000). Target position extraction based on instantaneous frequency estimation in a fixed-reticle doi
  32. (2011). [Online] (accessed
  33. (2011). [Online] (accessed
  34. (2011). [Online] (accessed
  35. Raytheon FIM-92 Stinger man-portable anti-aircraft missile. 2010, Jane's Electro-Optic Systems.
  36. (2001). Modulation Transfer Function in Optical and ElectroOptical Systems. doi
  37. (1997). Tactical and Strategic Missile Guidance.
  38. (2007). Low-cost PC-based high fidelity infrared signature modelling and simulation. Cranfield Defence and Security : PhD Thesis,
  39. (1997). Dynamic simulations of infrared reticle seekers and an efficient countercountermeasure algorithm. doi
  40. (1998). Analysis of the spinning CAR reticle seeker and an effective countercountermeasures doi
  41. (2000). Novel adaptive digital signal processing algorithm for a staionary reticle doi
  42. (2001). Simulation of target detection in ultraviolet and infrared bands. doi
  43. (2001). Adaptive infrared counter-countermeasures for two-color spinning concentric-annular-ring reticle doi
  44. (2001). New two-color cancellation algorithm for counter-countermeasures of infrared seekers. doi
  45. (2005). Two-colour infrared counter-countermeasures based on the signal ratio between two detection bands for a crossed-array tracker. doi
  46. (2011). Assessment of the performance of a new decoy dispenser pod against 2nd generation IR MANPADs.
  47. Grumman AN/AAQ-24(V) Nemsis Directional Infra-Red CounterMeasures (DIRCM) and Large Aircraft Infra-Red Countermeasures (LAIRCM) systems. 2011, Jane's Electro-Optic Systems.
  48. (2010). The future of airborne expendables. doi
  49. (1988). The world's missile systems eighth edition. Pomona : Pomona Division, General Dynamics,
  50. (2000). Guided Weapons Fourth Edition. London : Brassey's Land Warfare,
  51. Reactive and Pre-Emptive Countermeasures Against IR Man Portable Air Defence Systems. Cranfield Defence and Security : MSc Thesis,
  52. (2004). The MANPAD Threat to Commercial Aircraft. Cranfield Defence and Security : MSc Thesis,
  53. (2002). The MANPAD threat to commercial doi
  54. (2005). The use of Flare Countermeasures on Large Civilian Aircraft. Cranfield Defence and Security : MSc Thesis,
  55. (2006). Modelling the improved protection of fast jets from the IR MANPADs threat. doi
  56. (1994). The alpha-beta-gamma tracking filter with a noisy jerk as the maneouvre model. doi
  57. (2009). Analysis of first generation MANPAD attacks on fast jets. doi
  58. (2010). The effect of pre-emptive flare deployment on first generation man-portable air-defence (MANPAD) systems. doi
  59. (2010). Effect of payload size on pre-emptive flare countermeasures against MANPAD system. doi
  60. (2010). Effect of pre-emptive flares on MANPAD systems with a track angle bias doi
  61. (2011). Simulating pre-emptive countermeasures of varying performance against a Man-Portable Air-Defence (MANPAD) system with a track angle bias countercountermeasures doi
  62. (2000). Pre-emptive Vs reactive infrared countermeasures.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.