Gas turbine sub-idle performance modelling is still in an early development stage and this research aims to provide and improve present techniques, for modelling of windmilling and transient windmilling relights, through to groundstart simulations. Engine ATF data was studied and used to align models created within this research for low and high bypass engines, and compare these models simulation results. Methods for the extrapolation of component characteristics are improved and performed in linearised parameter form, and the most efficient approach discussed. The mixer behaviour is analysed and recommendations of off-design mixer behaviour representation in a sub-idle model are proposed and performed within the modelling. Combustion at sub-idle conditions is investigated with regards to the loading parameter definition, and also its representation for the influence of evaporation rate being limiting to overall combustion efficiency. A method is proposed on extrapolating and representation of the combustion characteristic. Compressor behaviour and the blade torques at locked rotor and windmilling conditions are studied using 3D CFD, producing insight and discussion on CFD suitability and what it can offer at these operating conditions. From the CFD studies generic loss coefficients were created for all compressor blades, from which a zero speed is created for the whole compressor, from a theoretical stage stacking calculation. This zero-speed curve is shown to allow interpolation of component characteristics to the sub-idle region, improving the definition and a predictive approach. A windmilling conditions cascade test rig is proposed, designed and built for validating the CFD loss coefficients. The findings and discussions within this thesis provide useful reference material on this complicated and little documented area of research. The modelling and methods proposed, provide great advancement of the research area, along with further integration of the Cranfield UTC in performance with Rolls-Royce
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