Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Petty commodity production and the role of finance: A case study of micro-enterprises in Cato Crest, a squatter community in Durban, South Africa

By Richard Reynolds


Finance plays a major role in influencing micro-enterprises and any process of change they undergo. This research provides both a study of such a process and an understanding of how finance and micro-enterprises relate within the context of the wider economv. The thesis is the product of fourteen months field research in the squatter community of Cato Crest. Durban, South Africa. A sample of 138 mainly retail micro-enterprises was studied using a variety of techniques, including semi-structured interviews and occupational biographies. Three categories of enterprise were developed based on current literature; capitalist, petty commodity production (PCP) and survival. The research then sought to operationalise them. It was found that between 18% and 29% of each group either changed into one of the other categories or ceased to operate during the period. The process however is not one of inevitable growth into capitalist enterprises. A dynamic process of growth and decline was observed during the research period and in the occupational biographies. Therefore while there was some growth in capitalist enterprises the main finding was that petty commodity production was conserved through the growth in aggregate numbers of PCP enterprises. Having identified the process of change five types of finance that played a role in Cato Crest were identified; external finance, waged employment, own finance, finance reducing measures (including partnerships) and hire purchase. The influence of each was as follows: • External finance from the banks and suppliers was not available to most micro-enterprises. • Full time waged employment by the owner or another household member was associated with the process of growth in micro-enterprises. In contrast the lack of such employment was associated with the perpetuation of survival enterprises or their cessation. The implication is that those who are marginalised or excluded from full time waged employment are likely to be excluded from owning micro-enterprises that grow. • Own finance through the use of stokvels, bank accounts and the re-investment of profit were all identified as important components in the growth of micro-enterprises. In all three cases they provided both a mechanism to save both directly and indirectly for investment purposes in the enterprise. However savings institutions need to be seen in the context of the wider economy in which they act as a channel for outflows of finance from the micro-enterprise sector to the formal capitalist sector. This is a net outflow since there is no corresponding lending of finance from the banking sector to micro-enterprises. • Finance reducing measures were observed to be important in the process of change. However it would appear that survival enterprises, which were often limited in their access to other financial options, were often perpetuated by the use of such measures. • Finally hire purchase was identified as being associated with the growth of micro-enterprises However its key role was not the provision of finance, but as a means for the capitalist sector to extend the sale of certain of its products into new areas of the economy. In summary the thesis is important in terms of the development and opcrationalisation of the three classifications of retail micro-enterprises, the identification of the role of finance In the process of change and the linkages between finance and the capitalist economy within which retail microenterprises operate

Publisher: Cranfield University
Year: 1995
OAI identifier:
Provided by: Cranfield CERES

Suggested articles


  1. (1994). (I 994b). 'Research priorities for South Africa's informal sector'. Discussion Paper presented for the conference "Development Research Priorities for a New South Africa",
  2. (1985). A critique ofdualist reason: the Brazilian economy since
  3. (1985). A dualistic labour system? A critique ofthe informal sector concept.
  4. (1990). A new path to development? The significance and impact ofHernando De Soto's ideas on under-development, production and re-production',
  5. (1988). A potato a day from the pensioners pay? Hawking at pension payout points',
  6. (1991). A quantitative assessment ofthe informal sector.
  7. (1988). A quantitative perspective on the informal sector in Southern Africa',
  8. (1991). A reassessment ofKenya's rural and urban informal sector',
  9. (1995). A report on the socio-economic survey of the informal area of Cato Crest in Cato Manor'.
  10. (1990). A retail perspective ofthe informal sector',
  11. (1989). A small enterprise promotion act: proposal and strategy for deregulation',
  12. (1992). A subsector approach to small enterprise promotion and research',
  13. (1994). Accumulation and labour relations 10 the taxi industry',
  14. (1994). Addressing the gaps or dispelling the myths: participatory approaches in low income urban communities.
  15. (1980). African capitalism in contemporary South Africa',
  16. (1986). Aiding self-employed car-washers in the informal sector in Durban',
  17. (1991). An analysis of the role of pawnshops in the Philippine financial system',
  18. (1979). An economic analysis of the finance leasing industry.
  19. (1978). An exploration into the nature of informal - formal relationships', World Development,
  20. (1987). An idea in good currency and how it grew: the informal sector',
  21. (1974). Analyzing qualitative data: first person accounts',
  22. (1984). Analyzing social settings: a guide to qualitative observation andanalysis.
  23. (1972). Appendix one: theoretical constraints. In A Emmanuel (cd.), Unequal exchange: a studyofimperialism in trade.
  24. (1990). Are home based enterprises "worthwhile"? The informal sector with reference to social security',
  25. (1971). Autobiographical notes on a rural migrant of Lima, Peru',
  26. (1992). Banks lend to only 9% ofthe informal sector, 18 August,
  27. (1990). Being unemployed in Northern Ireland. Cambridge,
  28. (1985). Between accumulation and irnmiseration: the partiality of fieldwork in rural India',
  29. (1989). Between field and cooking pot: the political economy ofmarketwomen in Peru.
  30. (1989). Black taxi industry case study',
  31. (1992). Blacks in the South African Economy',
  32. (1995). Building new realities: African women and ROSCAs in urban South Africa. In
  33. (1991). Capital accumulation in the black taxi industry.
  34. (1994). Capital accumulation, apartheid state and the rise of the black taxi industry in Johannesburg and Soweto:
  35. (1989). Case studies on the monitoring of informal credit markets', Working paper no 89-13,
  36. (1988). Case Study Research.
  37. (1991). Casual work and poverty in third world cities.
  38. (1993). Class, race and settlement in Cato Manor: a report on surveys ofAfrican and Indian households in Cato Manor in 1992'. Unpublished report, Institute for Social and Economic Research,
  39. (1969). Co-operative institutions and cultural change in South Africa',
  40. (1993). Commerce as an economic sector within Region E: the informal sector and micro-enterprises'. Unpublished report, Data Research Africa,
  41. (1992). Community dynamics and leadership in Cato Manor'. Unpublished report, Institute for Social and Economic Research,
  42. (1989). Comparative experience with micro-enterprise projects. In J. Levitsky (00.),Micro-enterprises in developing countries.
  43. (1979). Conservation and dissolution in the third world city: the shanty town as an clement ofconservation',
  44. (1976). Consultancyfor small businesses.
  45. (1990). Consumerism, the state and the informal sector: shebeens in South Africa's black townships.
  46. Creative Interviewing Beverly Hills, SJg~
  47. (1988). Credit and financial intermediation for the informal sector: adapting conventional lending agencies operations'. Inter-American Development Bank, Working Paper No 4, Plans and Programs Department, Sectorial Policies Division.
  48. (1990). Credit and savings for development: development guidelines number 1.
  49. (1988). Credit for alleviation ofrural poverty: the Grameen bank in Bangladesh'.
  50. (1995). Culturally sustainable rural enterprise development in Papua New Guinea',
  51. (1992). Defining a small enterprise in South Africa', Bureau of Market Research report number 191,
  52. (1994). Determinants of credit rationing: a study of informal lenders and formal credit groups in Madagascar',
  53. (1984). Developing the urban informal sector in South Africa: the reformist paradigm and its fallacies', Development andChange,
  54. (1979). Development and the informal sector: a study ofpeddlers',
  55. (1990). Developments in the informal sector'. Unpublished report for the Markinor Group,
  56. (1985). Dictionaryofbanking andfinance.
  57. (1987). Displaced urbanization: South Africa's rural slums',
  58. (1991). Doing Business in South Africa.
  59. (1987). Doingyour research project. Milton Keynes,
  60. (1990). Economic growth and urbanization in developing countries.
  61. (1985). Employment and growth in small-scale industry: empirical evidence a policy assessmentfrom Sierra Leone.
  62. (1972). Employment, incomes and equality: a strategy for increasing productive employment in Kenya.
  63. (1991). Encountering the market place.
  64. Eskom: past electrified area research',
  65. (1992). Facts or fiction? Fieldwork relationships and the nature ofdata.
  66. (1980). Family, fungibility and formality: rural advancement ofinformal non-farm enterprises versus the urban-formal state.
  67. (1980). Finance and entrepreneurship in the small business sector in Indonesia',
  68. (1991). Finance at the frontier: debt capacity and the role ofcredit in the private economy'. EDI Development Series,
  69. (1982). Finance Houses: their development and role in the modem financial sector.
  70. (1989). Finance with the poor, by the poor, for the poor: financial technologies for the informal sector with case studies from Indonesia', Social strategies,
  71. (1990). Financial deregulation',
  72. (1990). Financial intermediation for micro-enterprises in Bangladesh, Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia'. Unpublished report for Sodecon LTD.
  73. (1989). Financial services for micro-enterprises: programmes or markets'?
  74. (1991). Financial systems anddevelopment: What rolefor theformal andinformal sectors?
  75. (1995). Financing entrepreneurs in South African rural areas: a new approach',
  76. (1992). Financing of agriculture - role of financial institutions',
  77. (1988). Financing of small and medium-scale enterprises',
  78. (1989). Financing small enterprise - a review ofregulatory factors',
  79. (1986). Financing small holder production: a comparison of individual and group credit schemes in Zimbabwe', Public Administration and Development,
  80. (1992). Fiscal and monetary policy.
  81. (1992). Formal credit for informal borrowers: lessons from informal lenders'.
  82. (1992). Formalizing the informal sector in a changing South Africa: small-scale manufacturing on the Witwatersrand', World Development,
  83. (1995). Formalizing the informal sector: barriers and costs',
  84. (1991). Formation ofenterprises in the urban informal sector in Ghana',
  85. (1993). Friedrich Ebert Stiffung,
  86. (1980). From Cato Manor to Kwa Mashu - class formation and political opposition in KwaMashu township,
  87. (1980). Fungibility and the design and evaluation of agricultural credit programmes',
  88. (1979). Garbage, industry, and the "vultures" of Cali,
  89. (1982). Growth constraints on small-scale manufacturing in developing countries: a critical review', World Development,
  90. (1990). Guaranteeing bank loans to smaller entrepreneurs in West Africa'.
  91. (1991). Heart attack: bank nationalization in South Africa - implications and alternatives'.
  92. (1995). Hire purchase and micro-enterprise finance in
  93. (1987). Home based enterprises in cities of developing countries',
  94. (1978). How do you know ifthe informant is telling the truth').
  95. (1989). How useful is the "petty commodity production" approach? Explaining the survival and success ofsmall Salvadorean urban enterprises in Costa Rica',
  96. (1992). Improving women's access to credit in Latin America and the Caribbean: policy and project recommendations.
  97. (1984). In thefield: an introduction tofield research. London, George Allen and Unwin.
  98. (1992). Industrial subcontracting and the growth ofsmall-scale industry in less developed countries, with particular reference to South Africa'.
  99. (1992). Industrial subcontracting in the UK. and Japan.
  100. (1991). Informal and formal sector finance in Indonesia: the financial evolution ofsmall businesses',
  101. (1986). Informal black business in Durban: a socio-economic study of informal businesses in Inanda and Cleremont', Natal Town and Regional Planning Commission, supplementary report No 18,
  102. (1989). Informal credit markets in support of microbusinesses.
  103. (1989). Informal financial markets in Africa: main issues and selected case studies', Lecture prepared for the workshop "The role ofInformal Institutions and Co-operatives in Rural Financial Markets",
  104. (1982). Informal housing and informal employment: case studies in the Durban Metropolitan Region.
  105. (1973). Informal income opportunities and urban employment in Ghana',
  106. (1987). Informal lending: do it yourself credit for black rural areas',
  107. (1993). Informal manufacturing in the South African economy'.
  108. (1992). Informal retail trade',
  109. (1980). Informal savings mobilization in Africa',
  110. (1978). Informal sector or petty commodity production: dualism ofdependence in urban development?',
  111. (1989). Informal sector: the power of the unrecorded', Marketing Mix,
  112. (1987). Informal trading in Soweto',
  113. (1993). International experiences ofinformal sector activity and the lessons for South Africa',
  114. (1973). Interpreting African underdevelopment: reflections on the I.L.O. report on employment, incomes and equality in Kenya',
  115. (1978). Introduction - the urban informal economy: why is it worth discussing?' World Development,
  116. (1977). Introduction to the sociology ofrural development.
  117. (1990). Introduction: imperfect information and rural credit markets - puzzles and policy perspectives',
  118. (1989). Introduction: Towards a wider perspective on women's cmplo~mcnt', World Development,
  119. (1976). Investigating social research: individual and team field research. Beverly Hills,
  120. (1988). Investment, savings and the capital market in South Africa.
  121. (1991). Invisible workers: domestic service and the informal economy.
  122. (1991). Inward industrialisation, subcontracting and the construction industry in the Western Cape',
  123. (1976). Is a proletariat emerging in Nairobi?',
  124. (1987). Issues and prospects for the study of informal economics: concepts, research strategies and policy',
  125. (1991). Labour and employment in South Africa; a regional profile.' Centre for information analysis, DBSA,
  126. (1989). Latin American theories of development and underdevelopment.
  127. (1985). Lifestories, interviews and their interpretation. In
  128. (1986). Linkage effects and small industry development', Asian Productivity Organisation, Symposium on linkage between large and small industries.
  129. (1989). Linking informal and formal financial institutions in Africa and Asia.
  130. (1987). Literary geography and the informal sector',
  131. (1982). Living in the interstices ofcapitalism: towards a reformulation ofthe informal sector concept', Social Dynamics.
  132. (1993). Manufacturing in micro-enterprises in South Africa'. Research report to the Industrial Strategy Project,
  133. (1982). Manufacturing in the backyard.
  134. (1994). Manufacturing m South African microenterprises',
  135. (1990). Masingcwabisane/A re Bolokaneng: a hook on the burial societies. Braamfontein,
  136. (1995). Maundla's dream gives hope to hawkers',
  137. (1995). McCarthy retail and First National sign deal',
  138. (1989). Micro-enterprise stocktaking'. Synthesis Report,
  139. (1989). Micro-enterprises in developing countries.
  140. (1992). Micro-enterprises in South Africa: results of a survey on regulations'.
  141. (1989). Micro-level support for the informal sector. In 1. Levitsky (cd.). Microenterprises in developing countries.
  142. (1985). Migrant women and South African social change: biographical approaches to social analysis',
  143. (1991). Minding your own business: deregulation in the informal sector',
  144. (1989). Mobilizing rural deposits: discovering the forgotten half of financial intermediation',
  145. (1988). Monetary policy 1965-85.
  146. (1995). Money-go-rounds: The importance ofRotating Saving andCredit Associationsfor Women,
  147. (1988). Money, interest and banking in economic development.
  148. (1992). Moneylenders and informal financial markets in Malawi',
  149. (1992). Moving on: mistaken streams into and out of lnanda, Natal', Town and Regional Planning supplementary report, volume 38,
  150. (1984). Nairobi's informal sector: dynamic entrepreneurs or surplus labour',
  151. (1995). No easy answers in development debate',
  152. (1992). Obstacles and opportunities facing small and medium enterprises in South Africa: lessons from the garments industry'. Paper prepared by C.M. Calcopietro for The World Bank, Southern Africa Department, Industrial and Energy Division,
  153. (1991). Organizing the self-employed: the politics ofthe urban informal sector'.
  154. (1963). Peddlers andprinces: social change and economic modernization in two Indonesian towns.
  155. (1982). Personal documents, oral sources and life histories.
  156. (1989). Personal savings, institutional cash flow and economic concentration in South Africa', Bank ofLisbon,
  157. (1981). Petty commodity production and underdevelopment: the case ofpedlars and trishaw riders in Ujung Pandang, Indonesia.
  158. (1975). Petty producers and capitalism',
  159. (1978). Petty production and capitalist production in Dakar: the crisis ofthe self -employed',
  160. (1989). Planningfor small enterprises in third world cities.
  161. (1979). Poverty and survival: the dynamics ofredistribution and sharing in a black South African township',
  162. (1979). Proletarianization and the informal sector: a case study from Nairobi',
  163. (1980). Property, crime and urban poverty: a case study of Cali, Columbia',
  164. (1993). Qualitative data analysis: a user-friendly guide.
  165. (1989). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. Massachusetts, Allyn and
  166. (1992). Qualitative research: collecting life histories.
  167. (1989). Race Relations survey 1988/89. Johannesburg, South African Institute of Race Relations.
  168. (1993). Real world research: a resource for social scientists and practitionerresearchers.
  169. (1987). Redefining entrepreneurship in a third world context',
  170. (1979). Research methods in education and the social services. DE304, Milton Keynes,
  171. (1990). Research methods,
  172. (1984). Researching street occupations of Cali',
  173. (1991). Researching the household: methodological and empirical issues',
  174. (1990). Retail survey', Finance Week, 45(4), 23-24 FINANCIAL MAIL (1989)..A blend of loan and charity',
  175. (1979). Rhetoric and reality in the new international economic order', Discussion Paper Number 35, School ofDevelopment Studies,
  176. (1948). Rooiyard: a sociological survey ofan urban native slum yard. Cape Town,
  177. (1980). Rural credit, farm finance and village households.
  178. (1994). Rural household savings and consumption behaviour in South Africa'.
  179. (1982). Sampling in ethnographic fieldwork.
  180. (1984). Savings mobilization: the forgotten halfofrural finance.
  181. (1973). Second-hand equipment in a developing country: Juat processing in Kenya'.
  182. (1978). Self-employed proletarians in an informal factory: the case ofCali's garbage dump',
  183. (1992). Sensitive information: collecting data on livestock and informal credit.
  184. (1990). Sizing up the informal sector',
  185. (1993). Small and medium furniture producers in South Africa: an analysis of the barriers to entry and development obstructing small and medium furniture manufacturers'. Unpublished paper,
  186. (1987). Small business deregulation revisited'. Minutes of first meeting of Sunnyside Group,
  187. (1984). Small business in the third world.
  188. (1987). Small enterprise development: policies and programmes.
  189. (1995). Small enterprise or the informal sector?',
  190. (1992). Small firms and their major customers: an interaction and relationship approach'.
  191. (1984). Small firms in the economy of South Africa',
  192. (1982). Small industry in developing countries. World Bank Staff Working Paper 518,
  193. (1991). Small scale enterprises in Mamelodi and Kwazakhelo Townships, South Africa: survey findings'.
  194. (1992). Small-scale enterprise dynamics and the evolving role of informal finance.
  195. (1991). Socio-economic development through the informal credit market',
  196. (1970). Sociological methods: a sourcebook.
  197. (1982). Some role problems in field research.
  198. (1988). Some thoughts on black urbanization after the abolition of influx control. In
  199. (1977). South Africa and u.s. Multi-national corporations.
  200. (1993). South Africa: characteristics of and constraints facing black businesses in South Africa: survey results', World Bank Discussion Paper No 5,
  201. (1991). South Africa's informal economy. Cape Town,
  202. (1980). Soweto: a review ofexisting conditions and some guidelines for change',
  203. (1990). Spatial and gender differentiation in KwaZulu',
  204. (1992). Squatting dynamics: a look from within Cato Manor'.
  205. (1991). Statistically unrecorded economic activity of Coloureds, Indians and Blacks,
  206. (1994). Statistics in brief Pretoria, Central Statistical Service.
  207. (1993). Statistics South Africa.
  208. (1973). Strategies for a natural sociology. Englewood Cliffs,
  209. (1990). Strategies ofan irritating newcomer: black taxi's. In Beating apartheid andbuilding thefuture.
  210. (1987). Street car-washers: challenging the myth of the social pest',
  211. (1987). Street trading in Transkei: as a struggle against poverty. persecution and prosecution',
  212. (1989). Struggle for the city: urbanization and political strategies of the South African state',
  213. (1991). Subcontracting, growth, and capital accumulation in small scale firms in the textile industry in Turkey',
  214. (1993). Survey research methods. 2nd edition,
  215. (1985). Survey research practice.
  216. (1986). Surveys in social research. London, George Allen and Unwin.
  217. (1995). Survival by opportunity...and corruption',
  218. (1990). Surviving in a shantytown: Durban's hidden economy',
  219. (1992). Taking a fresh look at informal finance.
  220. (1992). Talking to traders about trade. In S. Devereux and 1. Hoddinott (OOs.), Fieldwork in developing countries.
  221. (1990). Temporary trading for temporary people: the making of hawking in Soweto. In
  222. (1995). The
  223. (1985). The analysis of depth interviews.
  224. (1982). The art of note taking.
  225. (1990). The Barclays guide to financial management for the small business.
  226. (1979). The birth, life and death of development economics',
  227. (1990). The black taxi revolution.
  228. (1979). The bottle buyer: an occupational autobiography. In
  229. (1991). The building ofan industrial society: change and development in Kenya's informal (Jua Kali) sector 1972-1991.
  230. (1986). The changing role ofwomen in the urban informal sector of Johannesburg. In
  231. (1989). The changing structure of petty production in Equador'.
  232. (1964). The comparative study ofrotating credit associations',
  233. (1994). The contribution of small enterprises to employment growth in Southern and Eastern Africa', World Development,
  234. (1986). The development of small and very small businesses'.
  235. (1982). The disarticulation ofeconomy within developing countries. In
  236. (1991). The dynamics of work and survival for the urban poor: a gender analysis ofpanel data from Madras',
  237. (1988). The economic impact ofleasing.
  238. (1978). The economic role of traditional savings and credit institutions in Ethiopia',
  239. (1990). The epidemiology and culture ofviolence.
  240. (1985). The first decade of informal studies: review and synthesis'. Environmental Studies Occasional Paper No 25, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies,
  241. (1987). The garbage scavengers: pickin' up the pieces',
  242. (1939). The Grapes ofWrath.
  243. (1991). The growth of stokvels' Unpublished paper for the Markinor group,
  244. (1991). The herbal medicine trade: resources depletion and environmental management for a "hidden economy".
  245. (1989). The impact of classification for policy .in Smallenterprise, new approaches: proceedings of the workshop 'small scale enterprise development'
  246. (1991). The informal and small and medium enterprise sector in the South Afnca economy'. A discussion paper presented at the conference "Access to Finance for Small Enterprise",
  247. (1990). The informal economy in South Africa',
  248. (1989). The informal economy: studies in advancedandless developed countries.
  249. (1981). The informal manufacturing sector in Kumasi. In S.Y. Sethurman (cd.), The urban informal sector in developing countries: employment. poverty and environment.
  250. (1989). The informal sector as a "lucky dip": concepts and research strategies.
  251. (1991). The informal sector in the 1980's and 1990's.
  252. (1982). The informal sector ofthe apartheid city: the pavement people of Johannesburg.
  253. (1984). The informal sector reworked: viability and vulnerability in urban development',
  254. (1991). The informal sector, gender and development.
  255. (1983). The informal sector: concept and case study',
  256. (1983). The informal sector: desperation vs maximisation strategies',
  257. (1990). The informal sector: small clothing manufacturers in Mitchell's plain', South African Labour and Development Research Unit, Working Paper No 8,
  258. (1989). The informal sector: socio-economic dynamics and growth in the greater Durban Metropolitan region'. Working Paper No 18, CSDS,
  259. (1986). The innocent anthropologist: notes from a mud hut, London,
  260. (1992). The intcrgration offieldwork and survey methods In R.G. Burgess (cd.). Field Research.
  261. (1990). The market in the urban informal sector: a case study in metro Manila, the Philippines', The Developing Economies,
  262. (1991). The meaning of informal work: some women's stories.
  263. (1994). The new world of micro-enterprise finance: building healthyfinancial institutionsfor thepoor.
  264. (1981). The petty commodity producer in third world cities: petit bourgeois or disguised proletarian?
  265. (1985). The Pisces Il experience: local efforts in micro-enterprise development: volume 11: Case studies from Dominican Republic. Costa Rica. Kenya and Egypt,
  266. (1987). The political economy of modern South Africa. Cape Town,
  267. (1957). The political economy ofgrowth.
  268. (1982). The political economy ofunderdevelopment. Cambridge,
  269. (1982). The politics ofbasic needs: urban aspects ofassaulting poverty in Africa.
  270. (1991). The politics ofthe urban informal sector in Peru: populism, class, and "redistributive combines"',
  271. (1979). The poverty syndrome: Making out in the South East Asian city'. In
  272. (1988). The prospects for informal small business in Kwamashu'.
  273. (1979). The quantification ofquestionnaire data. In
  274. (1978). The research act.
  275. (1993). The research interview: uses andapproaches. London,
  276. (1983). The role of financial intermediation in the activities of rural firms and households.
  277. (1984). The role ofinformal financial institutions in the mobilisation ofsavings.
  278. (1979). The ROSCA: financial technology ofan informal savings and credit institution in developing countries',
  279. (1962). The rotating credit association: a "middle rung" m development',
  280. (1984). The rural and urban dimensions ofthe informal sector: a discussion ofKenya', School ofDevelopment Studies, Discussion Paper, No 154,
  281. (1990). The South African economy: its growth and change.
  282. (1986). The strategic small-scale initiative',
  283. (1982). The study oflife history.
  284. (1986). The survival of the informal sector: the shebeens ofblack Johannesburg',
  285. (1955). The theory ofeconomic growth. London, Allen and Unwin.
  286. (1988). The Third World: South Africa's hidden wealth. Cape Town, Business Dynamics.
  287. (1986). The underdevelopment ofdevelopment literature: the case ofdependency theory. In A. Kohli (00.), The state and development in the Third World.
  288. (1980). The urban informal sector as a development issue: poor women and work in Lusaka, Zambia',
  289. (1982). The urban informal sector in Ciskei'
  290. (1985). The urban informal sector in South Africa: what options for development? A case study in KwaMashu, Natal'. Unpublished MA Thesis,
  291. (1990). The urban informal sector revisited',
  292. (1971). The urbanization process in the third world.
  293. (1995). The violence and beauty that makes up Cato Crest',
  294. (1980). Theft, Robbery and Conning in Cali, Columbia', Centre for Development Studies, monograph number 8. University ofSwansea,
  295. (1991). Third world urbanization: dimensions, theories and determinants', Annual Review ofSociology,
  296. (1992). Towards a democratic economy in South Africa: an approach to economic restructuring', Discussion document,
  297. (1990). Trader finance in Chad and Niger', Unpublished paper.
  298. (1987). Umgalelo and the failure of the church: a study of voluntary associations in Mbekweni Paar'.
  299. (1990). Unemployment and labour market issues - a beginner's guide. In N. Nattrass and E. Ardington (cds.), The political economy ofSouth Africa. Cape Town,
  300. (1990). Unernployment: the role ofthe public sector in incrcaisng the labour absorbtion capacity ofthe South African economy'.
  301. (1979). Urban employment a historical perspective.
  302. (1984). Urban poverty, informal sector activity and inter-sectorial linkages: evidence from
  303. (1993). Urban self-employment in Kenya: panacea or viable strategy?',
  304. (1990). Urbanization revisited: inner-eity slum ofhope and squatter settlement of despair',
  305. (1988). Urbanization, the Informal sector and migration: issues for research and co-operation',
  306. (1982). Urbanization, unemployment and petty commodity production and trading.
  307. (1991). Utilization of the traditional system in population development with particular reference to stokvels and burial societies',
  308. (1992). Wesbank: South Africa's leading Hire Purchase Bank,
  309. (1992). Where to from here in informal finance?
  310. (1979). Who are the self-employed? In
  311. (1980). Why the poor remain poor: the experience ofBogota market traders in the 1970s',
  312. (1977). Women in the informal labour market: the case ofMexico City',
  313. (1981). Women in the Informal sector',
  314. (1982). Working in the streets: survival strategies, necessity, or unavoidable evil?
  315. (1994). Working lives development research: issues surrounding the collection oflife-time work histories',
  316. (1986). World Bank lending to small enterprises through commercial banks'. International workshop in commercial bank lending for small enterprises and operation of credit guarantee schemes,
  317. (1983). World Bank lending to small enterprises: a review ,
  318. (1989). Zimbabwe's informal financial sector: an overview', Paper presented at the seminar on informal financial markets in development, Westpark Hotel,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.