Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Value proposition in international freight : the contribution of the freight forwarder to the global logistics triad

By Richard Ford

Abstract

The freight forwarder has been threatened with 'disintermediation' for years. This research looks at the relationships in the global logistics triad comprising the forwarder, the shipper, and the airline or ocean carrier. The middle-man in service industries such as freight forwarding performs the service of intermediation. He is defined as one who reduces or eliminates the need for a buyer to form exchange relationships, ad hoc or relational, with a number of suppliers by concentrating the buyer's need for information at the buyer interface and expanding the buyer's requirement for choice or selection at the supplier interface. This vendor contraction and expansion are explored in the qualitative first phase of the research which examines the relationships, shared functions, and roles of the members of the global logistics triad as well as the contribution of the freight forwarder. Modal differences are prominent. Shippers are closer in a relational sense to ocean carriers than to airlines - the exporter is much more likely to use a shipping line directly than to use an airline. This modal difference owes much to the airfreight industry's origins in passenger transportation. It is reflected in the airlines' perspective of the forwarder: as customer because of forwarders' purchase of space, as competitor because the airline is being excluded from dealing directly with the shipper, and as collaborator because of the common threat of the integrator. To the ocean carrier, the forwarder is customer and competitor only - collaboration is rare. Factors that affect the custome r/competitor/colla boratort richotomy in airfreight include freight capacity, the level of forwarder commitment to space, the status freight has with the airline, and the makeup of the airline's customer portfolio. The factors that affect the customer/ competitor dichotomy in ocean freight include the extent of LCL (Less than Container Load) cargo and 3PL (3rd Party Logistics) services offered by the shipping line. The modal differences and complexities inherent in the global airfreight triad were explored in the subsequent quantitative phase. What value does the airfreight forwarder offer to the shipper that would compel him to not disintermediate this intermediary and deal directly with the airline? It is surmised the forwarder offers value through cost reduction, specifically the costs of transacting with a number of airlines. This second phase is based on Transaction Cost Analysis using an experiment-derived survey instrument. The transaction costs of searching for vendors, developing relationships with them, monitoring their performance, handling problems that may arise, and managing potential opportunistic behaviour were examined. The shi pper- respondents - made up of British global exporters who used airfreight - were asked to compare their perception of these costs for the forwarder and for the airline. They were also asked about production cost/price advantages as well as demographic information that was presumed to affect these perceptions. The differences between these perceptions of transaction costs were highly significant with the perception of offering lower transaction costs, and hence greater value, lying with the forwarder. The shippers also positively viewed forwarders regarding the production cost/price advantages. However, the demographic variables played little part in the shippers' differential perceptions of transaction costs. Contribution is made to Transaction Cost Theory by suggesting the inclusion of triadic relationships and the intermediary as a governance alternative. In addition, the freight forwarding industry and global distribution benefit. Finally, at the level of method, the TC comparison technique used offers a fresh approach to comparing primary and intermediary vendors

Publisher: Cranfield University
Year: 2001
OAI identifier: oai:dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk:1826/4439
Provided by: Cranfield CERES

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (1198 1). The Modern Corporation: Origins, Evolution, Attributes,
  2. (1199). (1199 1). Comparative Economic Organisation: The Analysis of Discrete Structural Alternatives,
  3. 1). Prospective Freight Mega-Carriers: The Role of Information Technology in Global Ambitions. In:
  4. 1). The Delphi Technique: Forecasting in Turbulent Times,
  5. 996b). A Comparison of the Use of Third-Party Logistics Services by Large American Manufacturers,
  6. (1995). A Bargaining Model of Financial Intermediation,
  7. (1990). A Comparative Review of Analytical
  8. (1995). A Decision Support Approach for Transport Carrier and Mode Selection,
  9. (1993). A Decision System to Aid Canadian Exports to Europe,
  10. (1995). A Framework of Logistics Research,
  11. (1997). A General Theory of Network Governance:
  12. (1995). A Model for Strategic Repositioning of Service Processes,
  13. (1993). A New Road Map for Contract Logistics, Transportation & Distribution,
  14. (1993). A Note on
  15. (1978). A Realist Theory
  16. (1991). A Review of Portfolio Planning Models for Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Management,
  17. (1980). A Social Perceptual Approach to Freight TransportModal Choice.
  18. (1998). A Study on Marketing Channel Satisfaction in
  19. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation,
  20. (1992). A Total Cost/Value Model for Supply Chain Competitiveness,
  21. (1990). A Transaction Cost Analysis Model of Channel Integration in International Markets,
  22. (1996). A Transaction Cost Approach to Supply Chain Management,
  23. (1989). A Transaction Cost Explanation of Vertical Control in International Markets,
  24. (1981). a). One Subject or Two?,
  25. (1993). Added Value in International Delivery,
  26. (1992). Agency Relationships in Marketing: A Review of the Implications and Applications of Agency and Related Theory,
  27. (1988). Airline Reservations Systems: Lessons from History,
  28. (1996). An Acronym by any other
  29. (1996). An Empirical Examination of Switching Cost Investments in Business-toBusiness Marketing Relationships,
  30. (2000). An Empirical Study of Internet Issues among International Freight Forwarders,
  31. (1993). An Information System for Simultaneous Consolidation of Inbound and Outbound Shipments,
  32. (1994). An Internal Assessment of Logistics Value,
  33. (1970). An Inventory Theoretic Model of Freight Transport Demand,
  34. (1995). An Overview of Software.
  35. (1991). Analysing International Water Transportation: The Perspectives of Large U.
  36. (1992). Antecedents to Buyer-Seller Collaboration: An Analysis From the Buyer's Perspective,
  37. (1993). Approaches to Social Enqu#y. Cambridge:
  38. (1997). Assessing Transaction Costs to Describe Supply Chain Relationships in Agri-Food Systems,
  39. (1996). Assessment of Fundamental Strategic Issues in Structural Reforms of United Kingdom and South African Ports by Systemic Scenarios.
  40. (1991). b). Motor Carriers'and Shippers'
  41. (1981). b). One Subject or Two. In:
  42. (1991). b). Shippers Control Export Moves,
  43. (1990). Barriers to Globalization: Is Global Distribution Possible?,
  44. (1992). Basics of Grounded Theory Analysis: Emergence vs Forcing. Mill Valley, Calif.:
  45. (1990). Basics of Qualitative Research - Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques.
  46. (1994). Benetton's Logistics World, Containerisation Intemational,
  47. (1999). Boom Times Ahead for Air Cargo,
  48. (1996). Buyer-Seller Relationships in the Procurement of Logistical Services,
  49. (1999). Buyer-Supplier Performance: The Role of Asset Specificity, Reciprocal Investments and Relational Exchange,
  50. (1993). Buying Freight Forwarding Services,
  51. (1991). c). Forwarders Are a Vital Link for Shippers,
  52. (1981). c). The Role of Exporter and Freight Forwarder in the United Kingdom,
  53. (1997). Carrier Selection: Do Shippers and Carriers Agree, or Not?, Transportation Research Part E. Logistics and Transportation Review,
  54. (1988). Carrier Selection: The Analytic Hierarchy Process,
  55. (1995). Case-oriented Quantification.
  56. (1979). Centrality in Social Networks -
  57. (1993). Characteristics of Supply Chain Management and the Implications for Purchasing and Logistics Strategy,
  58. (1982). Choice of the Transport Mode,
  59. (1984). Cluster Analysis.
  60. (1980). ClusterAnalysis - Second Edition.
  61. (1987). Co-operative Behaviour in Vertical Markets: The Influence of Transaction Costs and Competitive Strategy.
  62. (1991). Collinearity, Power, and Interpretation of Multiple Regression Analysis,
  63. (1997). Combining Research Methods in Information Systems: Multi-Paradigm Methodology. In:
  64. (1994). Coming Full Circle,
  65. (1995). Communications and Disintermediation: The Transformational Power of New Communications. In: N/A (ed(s)),
  66. (1992). Competitive Issues in Intermodal Railroad -
  67. (1198). Competitive Strategy. New York: The Free Press. R-xxv
  68. (1995). Computer Programs for Qualitative Data Analysis: A Software Sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, Calif.:
  69. (1995). Computer Use in Qualitative Research and Issues of Validity. In:
  70. (1995). Computer-Aided Qualitative Data Analysis. London: Sage Publications.
  71. (1968). Concepts of Science.
  72. (1993). Conducting Interorganizational Research Using Key Informants,
  73. (1986). Consolidation Strategy: Inventory, Vehicles and Terminals,
  74. (1993). Contracting out the Physical Distribution Function: A Trade-off between Asset Specificity and Performance Measurement,
  75. (1996). Controlling Supplier Opportunism in Industrial Relationships,
  76. (1959). Convergent and Discriminant Validation by the MultitraitMultimethod Matrix,
  77. (1998). Coping with Adolescence, Industry Week,
  78. (1988). Corporate Framework for Developing and Analysing Logistics Strategies. In:
  79. (1984). Cost and Delivery Time Implications of Freight Consolidation and Warehousing Strategies,
  80. (1992). Cost Savings for Inbound Freight: The Effects of Quantity Discounts and Transport Rate Breaks on Inbound Freight Consolidation Strategies,
  81. (1998). Cost- Effective n ess of Follow-Up Strategies in Improving the Response Rate of Mail Surveys,
  82. (1995). Creating Logistics Value: Themes for the Future. Oak Brook, USA: Council of Logistics Management.
  83. (1997). Creating Value - Shaping Tomorrow's Business.
  84. (1993). Critical Realist Ethnography: The Case of Racism and Professionalism in a Medical Setting,
  85. (1988). Customer Service as a Proactive Process,
  86. (1993). Customer-focused Strategies for Motor Carriers,
  87. (1981). Decision Making in International Physical Distribution,
  88. (1991). Delphi -A Reevaluation of Research and Theory, Technological Forecasting and
  89. (1987). Delphi Inquiry Systems. In:
  90. (1995). Designing and Refining Hierarchical Coding Frames. In: Kelle,
  91. (1994). Designing Funded Qualitative Research. In:
  92. (1994). Determinants of Long-Term Orientation in Buyer-Seller Relationships,
  93. (1990). Determinants of Source Loyalty in Buyer-Seller Relationships,
  94. (1995). Determinants of Successful Logistical Relationships: A Third-Party Provider Perspective,
  95. (1996). Developing and Implementing Supply Chain Partnerships,
  96. (1987). Developing Buyer-Seller Relationships,
  97. (1995). Different Functions of Coding in the Analysis of Textual Data. In: Kelle,
  98. (1967). Discovery of Grounded Theory. Strategies for Qualitative Research.
  99. (1988). Distribution - Changing Links in the Transport Chain, Australian Transport,
  100. (1996). Distribution Channels: A Validation Study,
  101. (1990). Distribution Without Frontiers - The Dutch Experience, Focus on
  102. (1994). Diversification and Competition: Financial Intermediation In a Large Cournot-Walras Economy,
  103. (1993). Doing Business in Global Markets: Perspectives of International Freight Forwarders,
  104. (1994). Doing More, World Trade,
  105. (1999). EDI Benefits and Barriers: Comparing International Freight Forwarders and their Customers,
  106. (1996). Electronic Commerce (Finally)
  107. (1997). Electronic Commerce: Definition, Theory, and Context,
  108. (1995). Electronic Commerce: Effects on Electronic Markets,
  109. (1987). Electronic Markets and Electronic Hierarchies,
  110. (1995). Electronic Markets and Virtual Value Chains on the Information Superhighway,
  111. (1993). Electronic Trading, Inter-organizational Systems and the Nature of Buyer-Seller Relationships: The Need for a Network Perspective,
  112. (1985). Elements of Export Practice -
  113. (1979). Estimation of Population Totals by Use of Snowball Samples. In:
  114. (1958). Estimation of Relationships with Limited Dependent Variables,
  115. (1995). Exchange Relationships and Intedirm Power in Channels of Distribution,
  116. (1979). Expectancy Value Models in Planning: The Case of Spatial Consumer Behaviour.
  117. (1968). Experimental Design: Procedures for the Behavioral Sciences.
  118. (1975). Experiments in Delphi Methodology. In: Linstone,
  119. (1977). Exploratory Data Analysis.
  120. (1998). Export Intermediary Firms: A Note on Export Development Research,
  121. (1994). Export Practice and Management - third ed.
  122. (1979). ExportlImport Traffic Management and Forwarding,
  123. (1954). Factors Governing the Development of Marketing Channels.
  124. (1993). Factors Influencing Freight Service Choice for Shippers and Freight Suppliers,
  125. (1985). Foreign Freight Forwarders and NVOCCs,
  126. (1989). Formal and Informal Dimensions of Transactions. In:
  127. (1996). Formal versus Informal Contracts: Achieving ; Success,
  128. (1993). Forms of Association
  129. (1993). Forward Thinking,
  130. (1992). Forwarder Backs System Sharing,
  131. (1995). Forwarder Choice Beckons Wide,
  132. (1985). Forwarders and Computers: More Evidence for Regulation?,
  133. (1990). Forwarders Face the Future,
  134. (1993). Forwarders Offer Seamless Logistics Pipeline,
  135. (1993). Framing Global Logistical Requirements. In: Gordon Brace (ed(s)),
  136. (1996). Freight Forwarder Basics,
  137. (1998). Freight Forwarder Relationships. (electronic journal) (http: //www.
  138. (1997). Freight Forwarding
  139. (1989). Freight Transportation Carrier Selection Criteria: Identification of Service Dimensions for Competitive Positioning,
  140. (1993). From Transaction Cost to Transactional Value Analysis: Implications for the Study of Interorganizational Strategies,
  141. (1998). Fundamentals of Logistics Management.
  142. (1990). Global Companies and Public Policy. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs.
  143. (1992). Global Logistics Partnership Negotiation,
  144. (1988). Global Market Concentration Boost for Air
  145. (1994). Global Supply Chains: Factors Influencing Outsourcing of Logistics Functions,
  146. (1995). Going Direct to Market: The Influence of Exchange Conditions,
  147. (1994). Grounded Theory Methodology: An Overview. In:
  148. (1999). GSAs - Gaining New Respect,
  149. (1988). How to Choose and Use an International Freight Forwarder,
  150. (1990). How to Select a Freight Forwarder, Export Today,
  151. (1997). Hybrid Governance: The Role of Transaction Costs, Production Costs and Strategic Considerations,
  152. (1990). Improving Survey Responses with Postcards,
  153. (1987). Inbound Consolidation Strategy: The Effect of Inventory Cost Rate Changes,
  154. (1998). Industrial Mail Surveys: A Methodological Update,
  155. (1995). Informal Channel Relationships in Logistics,
  156. (1992). Information Systems Epistemology: An Historical Perspective. In: Galliers,
  157. (1988). Integrated World Logistics, Logistics World,
  158. (1992). Integrating the Global Pipeline: Logistics Systems Architecture,
  159. (1996). Integrating Variable Risk Preferences, Trust,
  160. (1995). Integrators Threaten Airlines, Forwarders,
  161. (1982). Inter-Organizational Personal Contact Patterns. In: Hakansson,
  162. (1993). Intermediation in Search Markets,
  163. (1974). Intermodality and the Freight Forwarder. In: 7th Intemational Forum For Air Cargo, 1/10174, San Diego, pp: 1 -2. Meadows (11970). Understanding the Freight Business.
  164. (1996). International Direct Marketing: Export Value Chain, Transaction Cost, and the Triad,
  165. (1995). International Freight Forwarders: Current Activities and Operational Issues,
  166. (1993). International Logistics & The Freight Forwarder. London: Unpublished Working Paper -
  167. (1995). International Logistics and One-Stop Shopping,
  168. (1978). International Logistics Strategies,
  169. (1995). International Logistics.
  170. (1982). International Marketing and Purchasing of Industrial Goods.
  171. (1985). International Supply Chain Management,
  172. (1987). Interorganizational Relations in Industrial Systems: A Network Approach Compared with the Transaction-Cost Approach,
  173. (1997). Interpretive Research in Information Systems. In: Mingers,
  174. (1994). Interviewing: The Art of Science. In:
  175. (1996). Introducing Data Analysis for Social Scientists.
  176. (1975). Introduction to book. In: Linstone,
  177. (1984). Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods.
  178. (1994). Introduction: Advances in the Social and Behavioral Sciences from Social Network Analysis.
  179. (1995). Introduction: Using Linkages and Networks for Qualitative Theory Building. In: Kelle,
  180. (1992). Is a Network Perspective a Useful Way of Studying Organizations?. In: Nohria,
  181. (1986). It's What You Ask and How You Ask It: An Iternmetric Analysis of Personality Questionnaires. In: Angleitner,
  182. (1989). Leading Edge Logistics: Competitive Positioning for the 1990s. Oak Brook, Ill.: Council of Logistics Management.
  183. (1997). Lean production in an International Supply Chain,
  184. (1983). Limited-Dependent and Qualitative Variables in Econometrics. Cambridge:
  185. (1998). Linking Midwifery Practice to Outcomes: A Delphi Study. Rhode Island:
  186. (1994). Linking Qualitative and Quantitative Data Analysis. In:
  187. (1997). Logistics and Information Technology: A Coordination Perspective,
  188. (1993). Logistics by Combined Transport: Barriers to Market Entry and Strategies of Main Suppliers,
  189. (1992). Logistics Goes Globak The Role Of Service Providers And Users -SWP 40192. Cranf ield: Cranf ield School of Management.
  190. (1996). Long-term Channel Member Relationships,
  191. (1978). Mail and Telephone Surveys: The Total Design Method.
  192. (1986). Make-or-Buy Decisions: Vertical Integration and Marketing Productivity, Sloan Management Review,
  193. (1991). Management Research -An Introduction.
  194. (1987). Managing Across Borders: New Strategic Requirements, Sloan Management Review, Fall. R-lil
  195. (1990). Managing Channel Relationships. In:
  196. (1984). Managing Export Distribution. London :
  197. (1997). Mapping the Field.
  198. (1987). Marketing: An International Perspective.
  199. (1975). Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications.
  200. (1980). Measuring and Assessing Organizations.
  201. (1623). Mediation 17, Devotions Upon Emergent Occasions.
  202. (1992). MIS Research Strategies. In: Galliers,
  203. (1981). Modal Choice for Urgent Consignments between Britain and Western Europe,
  204. (1992). Modelling and Evaluating Shipment Consolidation in a Logistics System,
  205. (1987). Modelling Coordination in Organisations and Markets,
  206. (1957). Models of Man: Social and Rational Mathematical Essays on Rational Human Behavior in a Social Setting.
  207. (1992). Motor Freight Transport Third Party Service: Shipper and Carrier Perspectives,
  208. (1990). Multiparadigm Perspectives on Theory Building,
  209. (1985). Naturalistic Inquity.
  210. (1990). Network Data and Measurement,
  211. (1994). Networks of Elite Structure and Decision
  212. (1986). Networks: Between Markets and Hierarchies,
  213. (1994). New Directions in Logistics. In:
  214. (1987). New Philosophies of Social Science: Realism, Hermeneutics and Critical Theory.
  215. (1993). New Strategies in Social Research. Cambridge:
  216. (1991). No Tears for the Mid-sized Forwarder,
  217. (1990). Ocean Carrier Selection Criteria in a New Environment,
  218. (1997). Offer Evaluation in an Electronic Air Cargo Market.
  219. (1986). On Measuring Organisational Properties of Distribution Channels: Methodological Issues in the Use of Key Informants,
  220. (1988). On Strategic Networks,
  221. (1998). One-stop' Service Demand Grows: Forwarders Find Shippers Want Them to Handle More than One Mode of Transport,
  222. (1977). Organizational Buying Behaviour: Hypotheses and Directions,
  223. (1987). Organizational Economics: Notes on the Use of Transaction-Cost Theory in the Study of Organizations,
  224. (1985). Organizational structure and information technology., Elements of a formal theory (CISR
  225. (1994). Outsourcing the Warehousing Function: Economic and Strategic Considerations,
  226. (1996). Outsourcing: Where's the Value?, Long Range Planning,
  227. (1993). Outward Licensing by Australian Companies. In:
  228. (1995). Partnering Characteristics: A Dyadic Perspective,
  229. (1996). Partnership of Unequals,
  230. (1993). Perceived Service Quality in the Air Freight Industry -
  231. (1997). Performance in Principal-Agent Dyads: The Causes and Consequences of Perceived Asymmetry of Commitment to the Relationship,
  232. (1996). Pitfalls in Logistics Partnerships,
  233. (1996). Planning Processes of Six Expelienced High School English Teachers: Unpublished dissertation.
  234. (1987). Power and Centrality; A Family of Measures,
  235. (1962). Power-Dependence Relations,
  236. (2000). Predatory Disintermediation,
  237. (1995). Predictors of Relationships Among Buying and Supplying Firms,
  238. (1996). Preliminary Interviews - Pilot Survey.
  239. (1994). Principles of Services Marketing.
  240. (1993). Private Fleet Use: A Transaction Cost Model, Transportation Journal,
  241. (1986). Production of Trust: Institutional Sources of Economic Structure: 1840-1920. In: Staw and Cummings (ed(s)),
  242. (1992). Profiling International Freight Forwarders: A Benchmark,
  243. (1991). Profit Centers, Single-Source Suppliers, and Transaction Costs,
  244. (1985). Purchasing International Freight Services.
  245. (1990). Putting Expert Systems to Work in Logistics. Oak Brook, Ill.: Council of Logistics Management.
  246. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook -2nd ed. Thousand Oaks,
  247. (1979). Qualitative Data as an Attractive Nuisance: The Problem of Analysis,
  248. (1995). Qualitative Hypothesis Examination and Theory Building. In: Kelle,
  249. (1996). Qualitative Researching.
  250. (1993). Quantity and Quality in Social Research.
  251. (1992). Questionnaire Design, Interviewing and Attitude Measurement London:
  252. (1975). Reality Construction as a Product of Delphi Interaction. In: Linstone,
  253. (1989). Reclaiming Reality: A Critical Introduction to Contemporaly Philosophy.
  254. (1995). Reducing Fragmentation in Qualitative Research. In: Kelle,
  255. (1995). Relationship Marketing for Competitive Advantage.
  256. (1998). Relationship Marketing: Strategy and Implementation.
  257. (1998). Relationships Between Theory-Driven Empirical Research in Operations Management and Other Disciplines,
  258. (1986). Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research.
  259. Report on a Long-Range Forecasting Study -
  260. (1995). Research Frameworks in Logistics: Three Models, Seven Dinners and a Survey,
  261. (1988). Reverse Marketing: The Now Buyer-Supplier Relationship.
  262. (1993). Satisfaction with International Marketing Channels,
  263. (1994). Seaforths Travel,
  264. (1993). Selecting International Freight Forwarders: An Expert Systems Application,
  265. (1991). Selecting Links and Nodes in International Transportation: An Intermediary's Perspective,
  266. (1989). Semiconductor Firm Strategies and Technological Cooperation: A Perceived Transaction Cost Approach,
  267. (1990). Service Encounters and Service Relationships: Implications for Research,
  268. (1995). Service Priorities in International Logistics,
  269. (1998). Service Priorities in US and European Firms Engaged In
  270. (1993). Shipper-Carrier Relationships and Carrier Selection Criteria,
  271. (1995). Should You Dump Your Forwarder?,
  272. (1961). Snowball Sampling,
  273. (1979). Social Network Analysis for Organizations,
  274. (1994). Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. Cambridge:
  275. (1991). Social NetworkAnalysis -A Handbook.
  276. (1992). Social Networks and the Structure Experiment. In:
  277. (1985). Social Organization of an Urban Grants Economy.
  278. (1993). Social Research - Issues, Methods and Process.
  279. (1975). Social Theory as Science.
  280. (1979). Sociological Paradigms and Organisational Analysis.
  281. (1988). Some Insights into Inbound Freight Consolidation,
  282. (1997). Sourcing Strategy: The Impact of Costs on Relationship Outcomes,
  283. (1996). SPSS Training Academic Tutor's Pack - Vol. 2. Essential Statistics.
  284. (1972). Stone Age Economics. Chicago: Aldine Atherton. R-xxvil
  285. (1996). Strategic Alliances in Transport and Logistics. In: Transport and Logistics
  286. (1993). Strategic Control in the Extended Enterprise,
  287. (1994). Strategic Interplays of an Actor in a Relationship with a Distributor,
  288. (1987). Strategic Logistics Management Homewood,
  289. (1993). Strategic Networks: Creating the Borderless Organization.
  290. (1956). Structural Balance: A Generalization of Heider's Theory,
  291. (1991). Survival of the Quickest:
  292. (1993). Survival Tactics, Traffic Management,
  293. (1998). Testing Alternative Theories of the Firm: Transaction Cost, Knowledge-Based, and Measurement Explanations for Make-Or-Buy Decisions in Information Services,
  294. (1993). The Buying Behaviour of Air Freight Forwarders,
  295. (1983). The Buying of Freight Services: The Implications for Marketers, The Quarterly Review of
  296. (1984). The Carrier Elimination Decision: Implications for Motor Carrier Marketing,
  297. (1992). The Choice of Organisational Form: Vertical Financial Ownership versus
  298. (1968). The Cost of Transacting,
  299. (1971). The Delphi Method: Substance, Context, a Critique and an Annotated Bibliography, Socio-Economic Planning Sciences,
  300. (1969). The Delphi Method. An Experimental Study of Group Opinion
  301. (1996). The Double Hurdles for Management Research. In:
  302. (1978). The Dyadic Paradigm with Specific Application to Industrial Marketing.
  303. (1985). The Economic Institutions of Capitalism NY:
  304. (1996). The Effect of Reassured Anonymity and Sponsor on Mail Survey Response Rate and Speed with a Business Population,
  305. (2000). The Effects of Electronic Commerce on the Structure of Intermediation,
  306. (1997). The Effects of Organizational Differences and Trust on the Effectiveness of Selling Partner Relationships,
  307. (1996). The Elements of a Successful Logistics Partnership,
  308. (1998). The Empirical Assessment of Construct Validity,
  309. (1988). The Firm, the Market, and the Law.
  310. (1979). The Freight Forwarder. In:
  311. (1993). The Freight Transport Market: Buyer-Seller Relationships and Selection Criteria,
  312. (1988). The Future of Business Logistics: A Delphi Study Predicting Future Trends in Business Logistics,
  313. (1992). The Future of Logistics in Canada: A Delphi Based Forecast, Logistics and Transportation Review,
  314. (1983). The Globalization of Markets,
  315. (1999). The Hidden Disrupters of a Global Supply Chain, Supply Chain Management Review,
  316. (1995). The Impact of Interorganizational Networks on Buyer-Seller Relationships,
  317. (1992). The Increasing Importance of Purchasing in Transportation Decision Making,
  318. (1996). The Influence of Positive and Negative Wording and Issue Involvement on Responses to Likert Scales in Marketing Research,
  319. (1986). The International Dimension of Physical Distribution Management. In: Lewis,
  320. (1987). The International Logistics Concept,
  321. (1959). The Logic of Scientific Discovery.
  322. (1970). The Market for "Lemons": Quality, Uncertainty, and the Market Mechanism,
  323. (1952). The Nature of the Firm. In:
  324. (1980). The New Social Contract. New Haven and London:
  325. (1970). The Organisation of Economic Activity: Issues Pertinent to the Choice of Market versus Non-Market Allocation.
  326. (1986). The Organisation of Vertically Related Transactions in the Canadian Forest Products Industries,
  327. (1992). The Organization of Business Networks in the United States and
  328. (1997). The Perception and Measurement of Transaction Costs,
  329. (1197). The Problem of Social Cost
  330. (1994). The Purchase of Logistical Services. In: Cooper,
  331. (1990). The Relative Importance of Cost and Service in Freight Transportation Choice: Before and After Deregulation,
  332. (1997). The Revolution in Distribution: Challenges and Opportunities, Long Range Planning,
  333. (1993). The Risky Business of Transporting Valuables, Air Cargo World,
  334. (1988). The Role of Dependence Balancing in Safeguarding Transaction -S pecif ic Assets in Conventional Channels,
  335. (1997). The Role of Opportunism in Transaction Cost Economics,
  336. (1985). The Salesperson as Outside Agent or the Employee: A Transaction Cost Analysis,
  337. (1984). The Scientific Status of Management Research as a Practical ly-Orie nted Social Science,
  338. (1990). The Strategic Benefits of Logistics Alliances,
  339. (1997). The Theory of Financial Intermediation,
  340. (1994). The Use of IT in Freight Forwarding in
  341. (1996). The Use of the Case Study Method in Logistics Research,
  342. (1989). The Validity of Idiographic Research Explanations,
  343. (1984). The Viable System Model: Its Provenance, Development, Methodology and Pathology,
  344. (1961). Theories and Things. London: Sheed
  345. (1996). Theories of Economic Organization: The Case for Realism and Balance,
  346. (1995). Theory Development from Qualitative Research: The Role of Grounded Theory. In: Cranfield School of Management Research Seminar, October 4,1995,
  347. (1992). Third Party Catches On,
  348. (1995). Third Party Logistics Choice,
  349. (1990). Third Party Logistics: Present and Future Prospects,
  350. (1993). Third Party Services in the Logistics of Global Firms, Logistics and Transportation Review,
  351. (1999). Third-Party Logistics: A European Perspective, Supply Chain Management Review,
  352. (1997). Three Regional Success Stories,
  353. (1993). Time-Based Strategy and Carrier Selection,
  354. (1994). Today or Tomorrow, Please, Financial Times Survey -
  355. (1997). Total Cost of Relationship: An Analytical Framework for the Logistics Outsourcing Decision,
  356. (1997). Towards Critical Pluralism. In: Mingers,
  357. (1997). Transaction Cost Analysis: Past, Present, and Future Applications,
  358. (1991). Transactions Costs and the Efficient Organization of Production: A Study of Timber-Harvesting Contracts,
  359. (1995). Transcription Quality as an Aspect of Rigor in Qualitative Research,
  360. (1989). Transportation Contracts and the Experience Effect: A Framework for Future Research,
  361. (1986). Transportation Mode Choice Based on Total Logistics Costs,
  362. (1994). Typologies as a Unique Form of Theory Building: Toward Improved Understanding and Modelling,
  363. (1995). Understanding Dual Distribution: The Case of Reps and House Accounts,
  364. (1994). Understanding Qualitative Data: A Framework of Text Analysis Methods,
  365. (1995). Users' Experiences of Qualitative Data Analysis Software. In: Kelle,
  366. (1995). Using Hierarchical Categories in Qualitative Data Analysis. In: Kelle,
  367. (1995). Using Logic Programming for Hypothesis Generation and Refinement. In: Kelle,
  368. (1986). Varieties of Realism. A Rationale for the Natural Sciences.
  369. (1967). Vertical Market Structures.
  370. (1991). What are Transaction Costs?,
  371. (1994). What is Management? An Outline of a Metatheory,
  372. (1996). What's New? Reintermediation, Tele. com, (4) electronic publication.
  373. (1980). Who Buys International Freight Servicesz London:
  374. (1991). Who Cares About International Freight,
  375. (1934). Who Shall Survive? - Foundations of Sociometry, Group Psychotherapy, and Sociodrama.
  376. (1999). Why Can't a Logistics Firm Be More Like a Forwarder? (or vice versa),
  377. (1993). Worldwide Data Link,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.