In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Most Merciful. By His will, this thesis has been completed as another episode of knowledge seeking and contribution. The author wishes to express a greatest gratitude to the academic supervisor for this project, Dr. Matthew Harrison and Professor Douglas Greenhalgh for their warmth, continuous guidance and support, priceless knowledge and expertise, and kindly understanding. Secondly, author's deepest appreciation to Dr. Mark Jermy, the initial supervisor for this project, for his ideas, understanding, support, availability and generosity for providing assistance both in author's academic and private life. To my mother and father whose supplications and encouragements have given me strength to complete this work. To my family whose support during this course of studies has given me comfort. To my parents in-law and siblings in-law, thank you for your support. My dearest gratitude to the beloved wife, Ira for standing by my side and giving me continuous support throughout this course of study and the hardship of life due to it. Your sacrifice is priceless. To my children, Balgis, Naufal, Nadiyah and Safiyah, you are my source of inspirations. A special thank to Dr. Glenn Sherwood, Tim Lee, Brian Scully, Richard Kennewell, Alan Hutching, and all others for providing technical supports during the experiment works. To Andreas, Eudoxios, Anni, Edouard, Fatiha, Alessio, Andy and Adam, I thank you all for the friendship and helps during my studies
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