Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Emotional states of athletes prior to performance-induced injury

By Tracey J. Devonport, Andrew M. Lane and Yuri Hanin


Psychological states experienced by athletes prior to injured, best and worst performances were investigated retrospectively using a mixed methodology. Fifty-nine athletes volunteered to complete an individualized assessment of performance states based on the Individual Zones of Optimal fFunctioning (IZOF) model. A subsection (n = 30) of participants completed a standardized psychometric scale (Brunel Mood Rating Scale: BRUMS), retrospectively describing how they felt before best, worst, and injured performances. IZOF results showed similar emotion states being identified for injured and best performances. Analysis of BRUMS scores indicated a significant main effect for differences in mood by performance outcome, with post-hoc analyses showing best performance was associated with lower scores on depression and fatigue and higher vigor than injured performance and worst performance. Worst performance was associated with higher fatigue and confusion than injured performance. Results indicate that retrospective emotional profiles before injured performance are closer to successful performance, than unsuccessful, and confirm differences between successful and unsuccessful performance. Qualitative and quantitative approaches used to retrospectively assess pre-performance emotional states before three performance outcomes, produced complimentary findings. Practical implications of the study are discussed

Topics: Emotion, Mood, Success, Injury, Measurement, Performance
Publisher: Asist Group
Year: 2005
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1982). A category scale with ratio properties for intermodal and interindividual comparisons. In: Psychophysical judgement and the process of perception.
  2. (1988). A model of stress athletic injury: Prediction and prevention.
  3. (1994). ABC of sports medicine. Overuse injury in sport. doi
  4. (1986). Affect and memory: A review. doi
  5. (1999). Athletic injury and minor life events: A prospective study. doi
  6. (1999). Athletic injury, psychosocial factors and perceptual changes during stress. doi
  7. (1992). Comparison between the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Category Ratio Scale (CR-10) for the evaluation of leg exertion. doi
  8. (2003). Construct validity of the Profile of Mood States-A for use with adults. doi
  9. (1999). Development and validation of a mood measure for adolescents: POMS-A. doi
  10. (2000). Effects of negative mood states on everyday decision-making. doi
  11. (1997). Emotions and athletic performance: Individual zones of optimal functioning model. doi
  12. (2004). Emotions in sport: An individualized approach. In:
  13. (1994). Injury, anxiety and mood in competitive gymnastics. doi
  14. (1998). Introduction to the special issue: Theoretical, empirical, and applied issues in the psychology of sport injury. doi
  15. (1971). Manual for the Profile of Mood States.
  16. (1981). Mood and memory. doi
  17. (1990). Moods and memory under natural conditions: Evidence for mood congruent recall. doi
  18. (1995). More than just a game: research developments and issues in competitive anxiety in sport. doi
  19. (1993). Optimal performance emotions in top athletes. In: Sport Psychology: An integrated Approach. E d s : S e r p a ,
  20. (1995). Performance affect in junior ice-hockey players: An application of the individual zones of optimal functioning model.
  21. (1995). Performance affect in soccer players: An application of the IZOF model. doi
  22. (2003). Performance related emotional states in sport: A qualitative analysis [48 paragraphs]. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum:
  23. (1996). Predicted, actual and recalled affect in olympic-level soccer players: Idiographic assessments on individualized scales.
  24. (1996). Predicted, actual, and recalled affect in Olympic-level soccer players: Idiographic assessments on individualized scales.
  25. (1994). Review and critique of models of psychological adjustment to athletic injury. doi
  26. (2000). Successful and poor performance and emotions, In: Emotions in sport. doi
  27. (2000). The nature of mood: Development of a conceptual model with a focus on depression. doi
  28. (2000). The Profile of Mood States and athletic performance: Two meta-analyses. doi
  29. (1985). Toward a conceptual structure of mood. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.