Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

CFD prediction of coupled radiation heat transfer and soot production in turbulent flames

By N. W. Bressloff

Abstract

The mechanisms governing the formation and destruction of soot in turbulent combustion are intimately coupled to thermal radiation due to the strong dependence of sooting processes and radiative loss on temperature. Detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions of the radiative and soot output from turbulent non-premixed flames are normally performed by parabolic algorithms. However, the modelling of combustion systems, such as furnaces and unwanted enclosure fires, often require a fully elliptic description of the flow field and its related physical phenomena. Thus, this thesis investigates the intimate coupling between radiative energy exchange and the mechanisms governing soot formation and destruction within a three-dimensional, general curvilinear CFD code. Thermal radiation is modelled by the discrete transfer radiation model (DTRM). Special emphasis is given to approximate solutions to the radiative transfer equation encompassing various models for the radiative properties of gases and soot. A new algorithm is presented, entitled the differential total absorptivity (DTA) solution, which, unlike alternative solutions, incorporates the source temperature dependence of absorption. Additionally, a weighted sum of gray gases (WSGG) solution is described which includes the treatment of gray boundaries. Whilst the DTA solution is particularly recommended for systems comprising large temperature differences, the WSGG solution is deemed most appropriate for numerical simulation of lower temperature diffusion flames, due to its significant time advantage. The coupling between radiative loss and soot concentration is investigated via a multiple laminar flamelet concept applied within the CFD simulation of confined turbulent diffusion flames burning methane in air at 1 and 3 atm. Flamelet families are employed relating individual sooting mechanisms to the level of radiative loss, which is evaluated by the DTRM formulated for emitting-absorbing mixtures of soot, C02 and H20. Combustion heat release is described by an eddy break-up concept linked to the k-c turbulence model, whilst temperature is evaluated from the solved enthalpy field. Detailed comparisons between prediction and experiment for the critical properties of mixture fraction, temperature and soot volume fraction demonstrate the effectiveness of this novel, coupled strategy within an elliptic flow field calculation

Publisher: Cranfield University
Year: 1996
OAI identifier: oai:dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk:1826/3622
Provided by: Cranfield CERES

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. 1877, Theorie de 1'ecoulement Tourbillant,
  2. 1971b, Concentration Fluctuations in a Round Turbulent Jet, doi
  3. (1994). A Comparison between Weighted Sum of Gray Gases and Statistical Narrow-Band Radiation Models for Combustion Applications, doi
  4. A Computational of Soot Formation in Turbulent Diffusion Flames,
  5. (1990). A Finite-Volume Method for Predicting Radiant Heat Transfer in Enclosures with Participating Media, doi
  6. (1994). A Finite-Volume Radiation Heat Transfer Procedure for Irregular Geometries, doi
  7. (1972). A First Cousre in Turbulence,
  8. (1983). A Line-by-Line Calculation of Low-Resolution Radiative Properties of COz CO-Transparent Nonisothermal Gases Mixtures up to 3000K, doi
  9. (1974). A Method for Calculating the Formation and Combustion of Soot in Diesel Engines, Heat Transfer
  10. (1990). A Model for Soot Formation in a Laminar Diffusion Flame, doi
  11. (1981). A Monte Carlo Method for the PDF doi
  12. (1981). A New Radiation Solution Method for Incorporation doi
  13. (1976). A Simple Calculation Scheme for the Luminous-Flame Emissivity, doi
  14. (1983). A Simple Model for CarbonMonoxide in Laminar and Turbulent Hydrogen Diffusions Flames, doi
  15. (1990). A Simplified Model for Radiative Source Term in Combusting Flows, doi
  16. (1991). A Simplified Reaction Mechanism for Soot Formation in Non-Premixed Flames, doi
  17. (1990). A Soot Formation Map for a Laminar Ethylene Diffusion Flame, doi
  18. (1984). A Stretched Laminar Flamelet Model of Turbulent Non-Premixed doi
  19. (1978). An Explanation of the Round-Jet/Plane-Jet Anomoly, doi
  20. (1976). An Improved Flux Model for the Calculation of Radiation Heat Transfer in Combustion Chambers,
  21. (1991). Analytical Methods for the Development of Reynolds Stress Closures in Turbulence, doi
  22. (1957). Apparent Emission Intensities from a Turbulent Flame Composed of Wrinkled Laminar Flames,
  23. (1995). Application of a New Weighting Set for the Discrete Transfer Radiation Model,
  24. (1985). Application of Statistical Narrow-band Model to Coupled Radiation and Convection at High Temperature, doi
  25. (1994). Application of the Hybrid Zone/Monte Carlo Method to 3-D curvilinear Grids in Radiative Heat Transfer, doi
  26. (1991). Application of the Velocity-Dissipation PDF Model to Inhomogeneous Turbulent Flows, doi
  27. (1996). Assessment of a Differential Total Absorptivity Solution to the Radiative Transfer Equation as Applied in the Discrete Transfer Radiation Model, Numerical Heat Transfer, doi
  28. (1982). Calculation Methods for Reacting Turbulent Flows doi
  29. (1992). Calculation of Fluid Flows with Staggered and Nonstaggered Curvilinear Nonorthogonal Grids - doi
  30. (1995). Calculation of Radiative Heat Transfer in Three-Dimensional Complex Geometries, doi
  31. (1993). Calculation of Turbulent Combustion of Propane in Furnaces, doi
  32. (1996). CFD Prediction of Coupled Radiation Heat Transfer and Soot Production in Turbulent Flames, accepted for presentation at the Twenty-Sixth Symposium on Combustion. doi
  33. (1989). Closure - Present and Future - doi
  34. (1993). Coefficients for Calculating Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Individual Species,
  35. (1979). Combustion and Mass Transfer, doi
  36. (1993). Comparison of Engineering Models of Nongray Behaviour of Combustion Products, doi
  37. (1964). Comparison of Models' doi
  38. (1993). Conditional Moment Closure for Turbulent Reacting Flow, doi
  39. (1987). Control Volume Finite-Element Method for Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow using doi
  40. (1993). Control Volume Finite. Element Solution of a Confined Turbulent Diffusion Flame, doi
  41. (1981). Counter-Gradient Diffusion in Premixed Turbulent Flames, doi
  42. (1994). Coupled Radiation and Soot Kinetics in Laminar Acetylene/Air Diffusion Flames, doi
  43. (1996). Coupled Soot Production and Thermal Radiation from Turbulent Jet Flames, doi
  44. (1992). Coupled Structure and Radiation Analysis of Acetylene/Air Flames, doi
  45. (1990). Detailed Modelling of Soot Particle Nucleation and Growth, doi
  46. (1993). Direct Numerical Simulation Investigation of the Conditional Moment Closure Model for Nonpremixed Turbulent Reacting Flows, doi
  47. (1994). Dynamics of 238 a Strongly Radiating Unsteady Ethylene Jet Diffusion Flame, doi
  48. (1982). Evaluation of Coefficients for the Weighted Sum of Gray Gases Model, doi
  49. (1985). Exact Solutions for Radiative Heat Transfer in BoxShaped Furnaces, doi
  50. (1985). Experimental and Numerical Simulation of a Buoyant Fire, doi
  51. (1989). Finite Chemical Reaction Rate and Local Equilibrium Effects doi
  52. (1989). Finite Element Solution of an Enclosed Turbulent Diffusion Flame, doi
  53. (1979). Fire Radiation -A Review, doi
  54. (1984). Flame Radiation in Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers, doi
  55. (1988). Flowfield Modelling of Soot Formation at Elevated Pressure, doi
  56. (1977). GENMIX -A General Program for Two-Dimensional Parabolic Phenomena, doi
  57. (1982). Gray Gas Weighting Coefficients for Arbitrary Gas-Soot Mixtures, doi
  58. (1995). Improvements to the Discrete Transfer Method of Calculating Radiative Heat Transfer, doi
  59. (1977). Infrared Flame Radiation, doi
  60. (1978). Infrared Mean Absorption Coefficients of Luminous Flames and Smoke, doi
  61. (1991). Infrared Radiation Statistics of Nonluminous Turbulent Diffusion Flames, doi
  62. (1994). Investigation of Radiative Transfer in Nongray Gases using a Narrow Band Model and Monte Carlo Simulation, doi
  63. (1986). Laminar Flamelet Concepts doi
  64. (1971). Mixing and Chemical Reaction in Steady Confined Turbulent Flames, doi
  65. (1989). Model Free Simulations of Turbulent Reactive Flows, doi
  66. (1995). Modelling Effects of Soot and Turbulence-Radiation Coupling on Radiative Transfer in Turbulent Gaseous Combustion, doi
  67. (1989). Modelling of No= and Soot Formation by the Eddy Dissipation Concept, presented at the International Flame Research Foundation 1st Topic Oriented Meeting,
  68. (1985). Modelling of Soot Formation and Oxidation in Turbulent Diffusion Flames, doi
  69. (1995). Modelling Soot Formation and Burnout in a High Temperature Laminar Diffusion Flame Burning under Oxygen-Enriched Conditions, doi
  70. (1990). Modelling Soot Formation and Thermal Radiation doi
  71. (1991). Modelling Soot Formation in Non-Premixed Kerosene-Air Flames, doi
  72. (1980). Models for Turbulent Flows with Variable Density, doi
  73. (1992). Modification of the Wide-band Gas Radiation Model for Flame Calculation, doi
  74. (1976). Molecular Gas Band Radiation, doi
  75. (1979). New Method of Computation Of Radiant Heat Transfer in Combustion Chambers,
  76. (1991). Nongray Radiative Gas Analysis Using the S-N Discrete Ordinates Method, doi
  77. (1984). Nonluminous Radiation in Turbulent Buoyant Axisymmetric Flames, doi
  78. (1980). Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Hemisphere doi
  79. (1994). Numerical Simulations of Smoke Movement from a Pool Fire in a Ventilated Tunnel, doi
  80. (1968). On Grey Absorption Coefficients in Radiative Transfer, doi
  81. (1977). On Radiant Heat Transfer from Turbulent Flames, doi
  82. (1962). On the Rate of Combustion of Soot in a Laminar Soot Flame, doi
  83. (1967). Oxidation of Soot by Hydroxyl Radicals, doi
  84. (1985). PDF Methods for Turbulent Reactive Flows, doi
  85. (1991). Predicting Radiative Heat Transfer doi
  86. (1985). Prediction of Soot Concentrations in Turbulent Diffusion Flames,
  87. (1979). Prediction ofthe Flowfield and Local Gas Composition
  88. (1992). Predictions of Radiative Transfer from a Turbulent Reacting Jet in a Cross-Wind, doi
  89. (1986). Priciples of Combustion,
  90. (1987). Radiation Heat Transfer in doi
  91. (1989). Radiation Transfer in Absorbing, Emitting Two-Dimensional Media Bounded by Reflecting Walls,
  92. (1974). Radiative Energy Transfer from Gaseous Diffusion Flames, doi
  93. (1992). Radiative Heat Feedback in a Toluene Pool Fire, doi
  94. (1986). Radiative Heat Transfer doi
  95. (1993). Radiative heat transfer by the discrete transfer method using an unstructured mesh,
  96. (1980). Radiative Heat Transfer in Nonhomogeneous Gases :A Simplified Approach, doi
  97. (1993). Radiative Heat Transfer, doi
  98. (1984). Radiative Transfer in Two-Dimensional Rectangular Medium Exposed to Diffuse Reflection, doi
  99. (1967). Radiative Transfer, doi
  100. (1968). Ray Effects in Discrete Ordinates Equations, doi
  101. (1994). Recent Developments
  102. (1988). Role of Underrelaxation in Momentum Interpolation for Calculation of Flow with Nonstaggered Grids, doi
  103. (1982). Second Order Closure for Variable Density Free Shear Layers, doi
  104. (1987). Soot and Mixture Fraction in Turbulent Diffusion Flames, doi
  105. (1990). Soot and Radiation Modelling in Buoyant Fires,
  106. (1988). Soot Formation doi
  107. (1992). Soot Formation and Oxidation
  108. (1993). Soot Formation in Turbulent, Vaporised Kerosine-Air Jet Flames at Elevated Pressure, doi
  109. (1990). Soot Volume Fractions in the Overfire Region of Turbulent Diffusion Flames, doi
  110. (1984). Species Concentrations and Turbulence Properties in Buoyant Methane Diffusion Flames, doi
  111. (1972). Spectral and Total Emissivity of Water Vapour and Carbon Dioxide, doi
  112. (1988). Structure and Radiation Properties of Luminous Turbulent Acetylene/Air Diffusion Flames, doi
  113. (1992). Summary on Comparison of Radiative Heat Transfer Solutions for a Specified Problem,
  114. (1934). Sur la Sphere Vide,
  115. (1971). The Calculation of Radiative Heat Flux in a Cylindrical Furnace using the Monte Carlo Method, doi
  116. (1977). The Discrete Ordinates Approximation for Multidimensional Radiant Heat Transfer
  117. (1972). The Kinetics and Formation Mechanism of Carbon Black during the Thermal Decomposition of Hydrocarbons in the Gas Phase,
  118. (1990). The Potential and Limitations of Direct and Large Eddy Simulations, Whither Turbulence. Turbulence at the Crossroads, doi
  119. (1972). The Prediction of Free Turbulent Boundary Layers by Use of a Two-Equation Model of Turbulence,
  120. (1972). The Prediction of Laminarization with a Two-equation Model of Turbulence, doi
  121. (1984). The Prediction of the Combustion and Heat Transfer Performance of a Refinery Heater, doi
  122. (1976). The Prediction of Turbulent Diffusion Flame Fields and Nitric Oxide Formation, doi
  123. (1995). The Spectral Line-Based WeightedSum-of-Gray-Gases Model in Nonisothermal Nonhomogeneous Media, doi
  124. (1981). The Structure of Laminar Alkane-, Alkene- and Acetylene Flames, doi
  125. (1974). The Total Emissivities of Luminous and Non-Luminous Flames, doi
  126. (1991). The Weighted-Sum-of Gray-Gases Model for Arbitrary Solution Methods in Radiative Transfer, doi
  127. (1973). Thermal Radiation by Combustion Gases, doi
  128. (1992). Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., doi
  129. (1988). Thermal Radiation in Participating Media : Past, Present, and Some Possible Futures, doi
  130. (1993). Three-dimensional Discrete-ordinates Modelling of Radiative Transfer in a Geometrically Complex Furnace, doi
  131. (1974). Towards the Ultimate Conservative Difference Scheme. II. Monotonicity and Conservation Combined in a Second Order Scheme, doi
  132. (1991). Transient Scalar Properties of Strongly Radiating Jet Flames, doi
  133. (1993). Turbulence Models and their Application in Hydraulics, A State of the Art Review,
  134. (1991). Turbulent Boundary-Layer Diffusion Flame - Effects of Probability Density Function, doi
  135. (1976). Turbulent Jet Diffusion Flames, Prog. doi
  136. (1994). Turbulent Reacting Flows, doi
  137. (1994). Two-Dimensional Nonstationary Causal Stochastic Model for Turbulence/Radiation Interactions doi
  138. (1985). Validity of Band-Model Calculations for CO2 and H Applied to Radiative Properties and Conductive-Radiative Transfer, doi
  139. (1993). Version 4.3, doi
  140. (1975). Zone Method for Radiative Heat Transfer Calculations,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.