Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

A Study of Rocket Exhaust Particles

By C. W. Dennis

Abstract

The exhaust -plumes generated by rocket motors are of significant military importance for missile detection, recognition and communication due to their electromagnetic emission and propagation properties. The plume is a high temperature, high velocity stream of gas and particles, into which the surrounding air is entrained. With improvements in the modelling of plume gas chemistry and turbulence, particles present in the plume have become more important in the computational prediction of the plume's flow field, and the subsequent prediction of plume emission and propagation characteristics. This thesis describes research on plume particles, including the measurement of their physical characteristics and the addition of two phase coding (ie. particles) into current plume prediction software. Particle collections were carried out in plumes produced by rocket motors with double base and composite propellants (including aluminised). The collected particles were analysed to establish their chemical composition and size distribution. A laser Doppler anemometer system was successfully used to measure particle velocities in the plumes of 1.5kN double base motors. Particle tracking software was used to trace the paths of particles using a simplified prediction of the plume and it was found that the predicted particle behaviour was analogous to that measured experimentally. Project management software was used during the research and its relevance was assessed in respect to the project's size and nature. The management of experimental trials was studied and a methodology formulated to help improve their future operation. The costs and benefits of the research were assessed and compared to other research projects. Many of the benefits gained, such as measurement techniques, require marketing to ensure that they are exploited in the future. Recommendations for future research are given that should enhance the present work

Publisher: Cranfield University
Year: 1996
OAI identifier: oai:dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk:1826/3583
Provided by: Cranfield CERES

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (1989). A study of particle trajectories in a gas turbine intake, Cranfield Inst of Tech,
  2. Adsorption and chemical reaction of gaseous mixtures of hydrogen chloride and water on aluminium oxide and application to solid propellant rocket exhaust clouds,
  3. (1993). Aerosol measurements Royal Ordnance, Westcolt RSG-18 station firing trial
  4. Agglomeration formation during coal combustion: A mechanistic model. doi
  5. (1981). Aluminium oxide particle size for solid rocket motor performance prediction, doi
  6. (1992). An analytical approach for the prediction of Gamma to Alpha phase transformation of aluminium oxide particles doi
  7. (1983). Analysis of two phase flow processes in rocket exhaust plumes, doi
  8. and assessment method of solid propellant rocket exhaust signature.
  9. (0807). Application of laser-Doppler technique to the measurement of particle velocity in gas particle two-phase fow. doi
  10. Application of Roe-TVD numerical scheme in the modelling of rocket exhaust flows. Defence Research Agency,
  11. application, and design specifications of a laserDoppler particle sensor for the measurement of particle velocities in two-phase rocket exhausts.
  12. Burning of solid aluminium and magnesium spheres in high temperature and high velocity gases, NASA TN D-6045,1970.
  13. (1994). Centrisep performance data, private correspondence,
  14. (1981). Characterisation of particles in the exhaust plume of large solid propellant rockets, doi
  15. (1995). Combined reacting/inert plume prediction software - PLUMES version 3, User guide issue 1, S+C Thermofluids,
  16. Combustion Centre, doi
  17. (1971). Determination of the complex refractive index of spherical aerosol particles, doi
  18. Development of 3-D modelling for rocket nozzle flows, Defence Research Agency,
  19. (1992). Effect of carbon particles and mixing on afterburning of exhaust plumes. Naval Weapons Centre, China Lake, doi
  20. Encyclopedia of materials characterization. doi
  21. (1991). Experimental techniques for obtaining particle behaviour in solid propellant combustion. Naval Postgraduate School,
  22. (1984). Influence of particles on the infrared emissions from tactical rocket exhausts. Air Force Rocket Propulsion Lab, Edwards AFB,
  23. (1991). Laser Doppler anemometry. Dantec publication,
  24. (1981). Measurement of particle size and refractive index inflames by Doppler anemometry. Imperial College,
  25. (1983). Measurements of infrared optical properties of A1203 rocket particles. doi
  26. (1978). Measurements of rocket propellant exhaust particles with a particle sizing interferometer. doi
  27. (1964). Mie scattering and absorption cross sections for aluminium oxide and magnesium oxide, doi
  28. (1994). Optical methods and data processing in heat and fluid flow.
  29. (1985). Optical properties of materials in the 0.34µm to 16µm wavelength band. Imperial College,
  30. (1973). Particle optical properties in rocket plumes. Lockheed Palo Alto Research Lab,
  31. (1992). Particle size distribution measurements in a subscale motor for the Ariane 5 solid rocket booster, doi
  32. (1968). Particle size measurement. doi
  33. Passive optical diagnostics of combustion flows, Applied Optics. doi
  34. (1989). PHOENICS coding for rocket exhaust prediction - Application of PHOENICS to free jet and base flow cases and comparison with REP prediction. S+C Thermofluids Ltd,
  35. PHOENICS training course notes,
  36. (1988). Physical characteristics of particles in engine exhaust structures. Minutes of a meeting at Westcott,
  37. Prediction of rocket exhaust plume spectral radiation in the 4 to 5 gm band using correlation band models.
  38. (1993). Private communication on plume particles. Royal Ordnance,
  39. (1985). Progress and plans, AFRPL solid rocket motor particulate characterisation program.
  40. Recommissioning of single beam velocity equipment. AEA Technology, AEA-TPD-0088,1994 Norris, J0W. Single beam velocity in a rocket plume - Phase 11: Calibration at Cranfield University.
  41. Refractive indices of soot particle deduced from in-situ laser light scattering measurements, Combustion and Flame, Vol 68, doi
  42. (1977). Rocket exhaust plume technology.
  43. (1995). SAPPHIRE program phase 2- recommendations for the choice of turbulence model for nozzle jet/plume flows, Rolls Royce plc,
  44. (1993). Solid rocket propulsion technology. doi
  45. (1984). Surface chloride formation on Space Shuttle exhaust alumina, doi
  46. (1993). Surveying the features of PM packages, Professional Engineer.
  47. (1976). The Application of Particle Size Analysis in Solid Propellant Combustion Research, AMA series on measurement in combustion research.
  48. (1993). The basic principles of particle size analysis. Malvern Instruments publication,
  49. The development and application of a gas velocity measurement facility for gun research.
  50. (1991). The effect of particles on afterburning and thermal images of plumes. Naval Weapons Centre, China Lake, doi
  51. The GENTRA user guide,
  52. The modelling of a rocket motor charge using I-DEAS GEOMOD and PHOENICS.
  53. (1989). The modelling of two phase flows using the general purpose particle tracking program GENTRA.
  54. The size and optical properties of soot particles, doi
  55. Two phase flow in rocket plumes. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.