With the increasing trend of charging for externalities and the aim of encouraging the sustainable development of the air transport industry, there is a need to evaluate the social costs of these undesirable side effects, mainly aircraft noise and engine emissions, for different airports. The aircraft noise and engine emissions social costs are calculated in monetary terms for five different sized airports, ranging from hub airports to small regional airports. The number of residences within different levels of airport noise contours and the aircraft noise classifications are the main determinants for accessing aircraft noise social costs. The environmental impacts of aircraft engine emissions include both aircraft landing and take-off and 30-minute cruise. The social costs of aircraft emissions vary by engine type and aircraft category, depending on the damage caused by different engine pollutants on the human health, vegetation, materials, aquatic ecosystem and climate. The results indicate that the relationship appears to be curvilinear between environmental costs and the traffic volume of an airport. The results and methodology of environmental cost calculation could be applied to the proposed European wide harmonised noise charges as well as the social cost benefit analysis of airports
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