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Stress analysis, dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric properties of PZT thick films. Fabrication of a 50MHz Tm-pMUT annular array

By Florent Dauchy


PZT films up to 35 μm thick were fabricated, using a composite sol gel route combining a PZT powder and a PZT sol. The maximum temperature for the process was 710°C. A demonstration of single layer and multilayer structures was given to show the flexibility of this technology. With Stoney’s Equation, studies of the in-situ film stress development as a function of the film thickness and density was effectuated. It helped to understand that the internal forces increase considerably with the film thickness and density. This study yields to set up experimental conditions in which a crack free surface finish of a 28μm thick film revealed the adaptability of the spin coating technique to fabricate thick films. The wet etching technology revealed the possibility of a great adaptability to pattern and shape innovative devices such as bars 10 μm wide of 21μm PZT thick film. The results open the way to a wide range of new industrial application requiring small features and/or multilayer PZT thick film with embedded electrodes. The single element and annular array devices have been shown to resonate at approximately 60MHz in air and 50 MHz in water. Three types of the composite thick film – 2C+4S, 2C+5S and 2C+6S – were used to fabricate the Tm-pMUT devices. In each case the most effective poling was obtained by maintaining the poling field of 8.4V/μm during cooling from the poling temperature (200ºC) to ‘freeze’ poled domains in place. This ‘freezing’ was required to prevent the tensile stresses within the film from reorienting the domains at high temperatures when the poling field is removed. Increasing values of thickness mode coupling coefficient (kt) were observed with increasing levels of sol infiltration (decreasing density). Such behaviour is thought to be due to non linear effects on the piezoelectric coefficient (e33) at high levels of porosity. For very dense thick film material a kt of 0.47 was observed which is comparable to that observed for the bulk material

Publisher: Cranfield University
Year: 2007
OAI identifier:
Provided by: Cranfield CERES

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