Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

The economic appraisal of transport projects: the incorporation of disabled access

By Alice Maynard

Abstract

The importance for disabled people of accessible transport is now widely recognised, as is the reality that this also benefits many non-disabled people. Many previous commentaries offer a qualitative perspective, but quantitative evidence, particularly of benefits to the population as a whole, has been lacking. This research, underpinned by the Social Model of disability, established that the absence of such evidence creates a barrier to the inclusion of disabled people in mainstream transport. Further, it demonstrates that there is a way to remove this barrier: by applying stated preference techniques, the benefits of providing access to transport systems can be robustly monetised and successfully incorporated into the economic appraisal of transport projects. A multiple-case study of tram systems investigated how practitioners currently incorporate disabled access into project appraisals. Analysis showed that isomorphic forces identified by new institutional theory have led to similarity in practice, with the effect that ways of incorporating the costs of disabled access are well established, but ways of incorporating the benefits remain unclear. Resulting benefit:cost ratios, often apparently unfavourable, may be misleading. A systematic literature review catalogued methods for valuing non-market goods, and from these identified methods transferable to disabled access. Stated preference, a method of monetisation common in the transport environment, emerged as an appropriate method, with discrete choice modelling a suitable technique. A discrete choice experiment enabled calculation of monetary values for platform-to-platform access at stations. Using a cross-section of the population and addressing socioeconomic factors such as age, disability, and attitudes to disabled people, willingness-to-pay figures were derived for access methods suited to disabled people‘s needs. Finally, these willingness-to-pay figures were incorporated into two appraisals. The amended benefit:cost ratios more accurately represent the value of access provision, and the figures incidentally enable the relative values of different access options to be distinguished

Publisher: Cranfield University
Year: 2007
OAI identifier: oai:dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk:1826/2046
Provided by: Cranfield CERES

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (2002). A comparison of the sustainability of public and private transportation systems: study of the Greater Toronto area",
  2. (2004). A Decision Support Framework for Sustainable Waste Management",
  3. (2001). A personal journey into disability politics, available at: http://www.leeds.ac.uk/disability-studies/archiveuk/archframe.htm (accessed 27/08/2007).
  4. (2004). A review of transport appraisal, Commission for Integrated Transport, available at: http://www.cfit.gov.uk/docs/2004/rta/pdf/rta.pdf (accessed 27/08/2007)
  5. (2003). Acceptable project investment criteria",
  6. (2000). Accessible transportation and mobility, available at: http://gulliver.trb.org/publications/millennium/00001.pdf (accessed 3/6/2005).
  7. (2005). Accounting for afforestation externalities: a comparison of contingent valuation and choice modelling",
  8. (1998). Accounting for ethnicity in recreation demand: a flexible count data approach",
  9. (2000). Accounting for intangible assets in Scandinavia, the UK, the US, and by the IASC: Challenges and a solution",
  10. (2006). Achieving light rail in the UK, available at: http://www.mvagroup.com/brochures/lightrail.pdf (accessed 25/02/2006).
  11. (1997). Affirmative action and economics: a framework for analysis",
  12. (2000). All change 2000: the report,
  13. (1998). All included: it's train crazy New legislation promises a better transport system for everyone, but Janet Snell discovers that doesn't include disabled people, The Guardian,
  14. (1999). An algorithm for optimal Pigouvian taxes without benefits data",
  15. (2003). An approach to the economic appraisal of AVCS Maglev",
  16. (2005). An introduction to Biogeme 1.4, available at: http://transpor2.epfl.ch/biogeme/doc/tutorial.pdf (accessed 05/04/2006).
  17. (2001). An introduction to economic evaluation of health care",
  18. (2007). An overview of how the distributional impacts of transportation policy have been measured (unpublished Report),
  19. (2003). An overview of the literature on disability and transport, Disability Rights Commission,
  20. (2003). Application of perceived value model to identify factors affecting passengers' repurchase intentions on city bus: a case of the Taipei metropolitan area",
  21. (2003). Appraisal framework for transport objectives",
  22. (2000). Appraisal of non-commercial passenger rail services in Britain",
  23. (2006). Appraisal: related projects, available at: http://www.steerdaviesgleave.com/pages/services/index.asp?PageID=157 (accessed 25/02/2006).
  24. (2003). Appraising the social costs and benefits of road projects, available at: http://www.itdp.org/read/Social%20Benefits.pdf#search='Appraising%20the%2 0social%20costs%20and%20benefits%20of%20road%20projects' (accessed 09/07/2005).
  25. (1993). Approaches to Social Enquiry,
  26. (1995). Appropriation and efficiency: a revision of the first theorem of welfare economics",
  27. (2000). Art, museums and contests: private vs. public provision",
  28. (1996). Assessing the costs and benefits of cycle networks",
  29. (2003). Authority
  30. Authority (2002), Code of practice on train and station services for disabled passengers, Strategic Rail Authority, available at: http://www.sra.gov.uk/pubs2/stratpolplan/cop/cop1 (accessed 27/01/2004).
  31. Authority (2005), £370 million fund unveiled at rail accessibility conference, available at: http://www.sra.gov.uk/news/2005/3/accessibility_conference (accessed 01/06/05).
  32. (2000). Barriers to cost-effective transport available at: http://www.transportlinks.org/transport_links/filearea/publications/1_627_PA3573_2000.pdf (accessed 27/08/2005).
  33. (2004). Benefits analysis - a robust assessment approach",
  34. (2001). Best practice for using assessment hierarchies in operational analysis",
  35. (2003). BIOGEME: A free package for the estimation of discrete choice models",
  36. (2006). Borough results, available at: http://www.brent.gov.uk/demographic.nsf/24878f4b00d4f0f68025663c006c794 4/f627f795ea15d9a180256ccc00566a8f!OpenDocument#population (accessed 11/02/2007).
  37. (2006). Britain isn‘t moving, available at: http://www.economist.com/opinion/displaystory.cfm?story_id=E1_RPVPTRR (accessed 12/12/2006).
  38. (2004). Business case development manual, Transport for
  39. (2000). Cabbages of the world unite, available at: http://www.leeds.ac.uk/disabilitystudies/archiveuk/elderwood/elderwoodward.html (accessed 27/08/2007).
  40. (2003). Case study research: design and methods 3rd ed, Sage,
  41. (2003). Census
  42. (2002). Choice modelling and tests of benefit transfer",
  43. (2001). Choice modelling approaches: a superior alternative for environmental valuation?",
  44. (1999). Commodities and capabilities,
  45. (2000). Common barriers and their removal,
  46. (2003). Conceptualizing social exclusion in rural Britain",
  47. (2000). Constructing effective environmental regimes",
  48. (1998). Contigent valuation versus choice experiments: estimating the benefits of environmentally sensitive areas in Scotland",
  49. (1972). Control areas and accounting prices: an approach to economic evaluation",
  50. (1998). Cost Benefit Analysis and environmental policy",
  51. (1998). Cost Effectiveness and Incremental Cost Analyses: Alternative to benefit-cost analysis for environmental remediation projects",
  52. (2006). Cost-benefit analyses of transportation investments: neither critical nor realistic",
  53. (1998). Cost-benefit analysis and mammographic screening: a travel cost approach",
  54. (2004). Cost-benefit analysis in criminal law",
  55. (2004). Cost-benefit analysis of cleaning the Ganges: some emerging environment and development issues",
  56. (2000). Cost-Benefit Analysis of mammography screening in denmark based on discrete ranking data",
  57. (2002). Cost-Benefit Analysis using economic surpluses: a case study of a televised event",
  58. (2001). Cost-benefit analysis: concepts and practice, Prentice-Hall,
  59. (1992). Counting us out: a discussion of the OPCS disability surveys",
  60. (1994). Cross-sector benefits of accessible public transport,
  61. (2007). Crossrail: crossing the capital, connecting the UK, available at: http://www.crossrail.co.uk/ (accessed 14/05/2007).
  62. (2006). Deleting 'irrational' responses from discrete choice experiments: a case of investigating or imposing preferences?",
  63. (2004). Determining Multi-Criteria Priorities in the Planning of Electric Power Generation",
  64. (2005). Developing a multicriteria approach for the measurement of sustainable performance",
  65. (2001). Development of a policy appraisal checklist for the Environment Agency of England and Wales",
  66. (2001). Development of an Environmental Justice Analysis Methodology for Georgia Department of Transportation's Multimodal Transportation Planning Tool",
  67. (1989). Direct and cross sector benefits from the provision of specialised and accessible mainstream transport", Specialized Transportation Planning and Practice,
  68. (2002). Disability and the Body",
  69. (1995). Disability and transport",
  70. (1983). Disability challenge no. 2, UPIAS, available at: http://www.leeds.ac.uk/disabilitystudies/archiveuk/UPIAS/Disability%20Challenge%202.pdf (accessed 30/05/2007).
  71. (1999). Disability Issues '99, The Belfast News Letter,
  72. (2004). Disability policy and practice: applying the Social Model, The Disability Press,
  73. Disability Rights Commission (2006a), DRC responds to Equalities Review interim report, available at: http://www.drc.org.uk/newsroom/news_releases/2006/drc_responds_to_equali ties_rev.aspx (accessed 05/08/2006).
  74. Disability Rights Commission (2006b), Rights of access: services to the public, public authority functions, private clubs and premises, Statutory Code of Practice,
  75. Disability Rights Commission (2007), Disability equality duty, available at: http://www.drcgb.org/employers_and_service_provider/disability_equality_duty.aspx (accessed 09/05/2007).
  76. (1995). Disability rights: rhetoric and reality in the UK",
  77. (2002). Disability studies today,
  78. (1995). Disabled people and public transport, Working Paper 1, Policy Studies Institute, available at: http://www.leeds.ac.uk/disabilitystudies/archiveuk/archframe.htm (accessed 27/08/2007).
  79. (1991). Disabled people in Britain and discrimination: a case for antidiscrimination legislation,
  80. (1994). Disabled: one more label",
  81. (1996). Do contingent valuation estimates pass a "scope" test? A meta-analysis",
  82. (1999). Do focus groups contribute anything to the contingent valuation process?",
  83. (2004). door2door, Commission on Accessible Transport,
  84. (2007). Dyslexia 'is used by parents as excuse for slow children', Internet ed., The Times, available at: http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/education/article1848281.ece (accessed 27/08/2007).
  85. (2006). Economic and social costs and benefits to employers of retaining, recruiting and employing disabled people and/or people with health conditions or an injury: review of the evidence, 400, UK Department for Work and Pensions,
  86. (2001). Economic appraisal of European transport projects: the state-of-the-art revisited",
  87. (2001). Economic evaluation and priority setting in water and sanitation interventions, available at: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/iwachap15.pdf (accessed 09/07/2005).
  88. (1999). Economic evaluation of environmental impacts, available at: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/Env_and_Eco/chap2.pdf (accessed 06/08/2005).
  89. (2003). Economic evaluation of homeshare Victoria, available at: http://www.homeshare.org/DocumentManagment/ResourceUpload/Economic %20Evaluation.pdf (accessed 23/03/2005).
  90. (2001). Economic evaluation of programs: principles and methods, available at: http://preventiondividend.com/en/welcome/presentations/Dr_Gafni.pdf (accessed 09/07/2005).
  91. (2004). Economic impact and quality-of-life burden of allergic rhinitis",
  92. (1995). Economic instruments for sustainable mobility",
  93. (2003). Economic valuation of the environment: how citizens make sense of contingent valuation questions",
  94. (2002). Economic valuation with stated preference: a manual, Edward Elgar,
  95. (2004). Economics of polluter pays principles for mitigating social costs of electricity: a search for an optimal liability share",
  96. Economics Working Paper No.
  97. (2003). Empirical evidence of the non-use of cost-benefit analysis in Swedish local/regional public transport",
  98. Employers Forum on Disability (2007b), Disabled customers: driving quality through awareness, available at: http://www.employersforum.co.uk/www/guests/info/csr/disability-online/customers/customer1.htm (accessed 09/05/2007).
  99. Employers Forum on Disability (2007c), Realising potential: stakeholder factbox -your customers, available at: http://www.realising-potential.org/stakeholderfactbox/customers/ (accessed 30/05/2007).
  100. (2001). Environment, security and the question of quantification",
  101. (1998). Environmental appraisal and environmental policy in the European Union",
  102. (1998). Environmental decision making: a comparison between cost-benefit analysis and multicriteria decision aid",
  103. (1997). Environmental externalities and social optimality in biomass markets: waste-to-energy in the Netherlands and biofuels in France",
  104. (2000). Environmental externalities of motor-vehicle use in the US",
  105. (2003). Environmental impacts of high-speed rail links in cost-benefit analyses: a case study of the Dutch Zuider Zee line",
  106. (2001). Environmental justice analysis: theories, methods and practice, Lewis Publishers,
  107. (1999). Environmental justice in transportation planning",
  108. (2000). Environmental valuation",
  109. (2000). Environmental value transfer: state of the art and future prospects",
  110. (2006). Equality impact assessment: project and policy assessment report,
  111. (2004). Equity weights in the allocation of health care: the rank-dependent QALY model",
  112. (2003). Estimating the monetary value of health care: lessons from environmental economics",
  113. (2003). Estimating the social rate of return to education for indigenous Australians",
  114. (2004). Ethics in human subjects research: do incentives matter?",
  115. (2003). Evaluating urban transportation quality: 1 - overview, available at: http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch6en/meth6en/ch6m3en.html (accessed 6/8/2005).
  116. (2000). Evaluation of nature conservation",
  117. (2004). Evaluation of regional sustainable development - transitions and prospects",
  118. (2005). Evaluation, prioritization and selection of transportation investment projects in New York City",
  119. (1995). Existence value, contingent valuation, and natural resources damages assessment",
  120. (2002). Explaining society: critical realism in the social sciences,
  121. (1999). Exploring disability: a sociological introduction,
  122. (2001). Extended discrete choice models: integrated framework, flexible error structures, and latent variables
  123. for Innovative Transportation (2004), Benefit-cost analysis in transportation, available at: www.pinchy.org/joy/index.html (accessed 11/08/2004).
  124. for Transport (2005a), Guidance on value for money, available at: http://www.dft.gov.uk/about/how/vfm/guidanceonvalueformoney (accessed 13/05/2007).
  125. for Transport (2005b), Inclusive mobility, available at: http://www.dft.gov.uk/stellent/groups/dft_mobility/documents/pdf/dft_mobility_ pdf_503282.pdf (accessed 08/03/2006).
  126. for Transport (2006b), Network Rail discretionary fund schemes: appraisal guidance, UK Department for Transport, available at: http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/rail/researchtech/technical/networkraildiscretionaryfu nd3476 (accessed 27/08/2007).
  127. (2007). for Work and Pensions
  128. (2002). Foreword",
  129. (1995). Freight transport as an environmental problem",
  130. (2006). Future Inclusion, Ionann Management Consultants
  131. (1997). Governmental accounting for heritage assets: economic, social implications",
  132. (1998). Green grass and brown roots: understanding environmental problems in deprived neighbourhoods",
  133. (2001). Guidebook for assessing the social and economic effects of transportation projects, 456, National Academy Press,
  134. (2005). Health economics - topic 5 notes, available at: http://www.ucd.ie/economic/staff/dmadden/Health%20Economics%20-%20Topic%205.doc (accessed 6/8/2005).
  135. (2002). Hello! Are you listening? Disabled teenagers' experience of access to inclusive leisure, Joseph Rowntree Foundation,
  136. (2005). Here's my health and safety proposal - the moaners should give it a rest,
  137. (2003). Human values and their importance to the development of forestry policy in Britain: a literature review",
  138. (2000). I struggled with this money business": respondents' perspectives on contingent valuation",
  139. (2005). Improvement of external transport cost evaluation in the context of Lithuania's integration into the European Union",
  140. (2004). Improving public transport in England through light rail, available at: http://www.nao.org.uk/publications/nao_reports/03-04/0304518.pdf, (accessed 27/08/2007).
  141. (2005). improving the life chances of disabled people - final report, Cabinet Office,
  142. (2006). In the town & in the country, can we make a real difference for the mobility impaired", available at: http://mvaconsultancy.com/publications/Mobility_Impaired_ETC.pdf (accessed 27/08/2007).
  143. (2003). Including disabled people in poverty reduction work: "Nothing about us, without us"",
  144. (1986). Independent living and the Medical Model of disability",
  145. (2003). Information management for public participation in co-design processes: evaluation of a Dutch example",
  146. (1999). Institutional and social influences on R&D evaluation in agriculture",
  147. (1990). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance,
  148. (2004). Integrated ecological, economic and social impact assessment of alternative flood control policies in the Netherlands",
  149. (2000). Integrated economic evaluation for sustainable development,
  150. (1991). Introduction",
  151. (2004). Investing insensitivity to scope: a splitsample test of perceived scheme realism",
  152. (2004). Is economic evaluation in touch with society's health values?",
  153. (2006). Japanese insights, available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/ouch/columnists/tom/270306_index.shtml (accessed 05/08/2007).
  154. (1995). Knowledge in the policy process: incorporating new environmental information in natural resources policy making",
  155. (2002). Linking medicine and economics: health economics and quality of life in haemophilia care",
  156. London (2006a), Response to Network Rail‘s draft cross-London Route Utilisation Strategy, available at: http://www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/downloads/businessandpartners/network-rail-rusresponse.pdf (accessed 14/05/2007).
  157. London (2006b), Transport 2025: transport challenges for a growing city, Transport for
  158. (2005). London & sub-regional strategy: support studies project, available at: http://www.london.gov.uk/mayor/housing/docs/strategysupport-studies-exec-summary.rtf (accessed 05/08/2007).
  159. (2007). London Overground, available at: http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/projectsandschemes/networkandservices/5011. aspx (accessed 14/05/2007).
  160. (2001). Making pedestrian facilities more usable and safer for all",
  161. (2003). Making the connections: final report on transport and social exclusion, Social Exclusion Unit,
  162. (2002). Mapping the terrain",
  163. (2000). Market versus non-market values: where to draw the line?",
  164. (1999). Mobility for all: accessible transportation around the world, available at: http://www.independentliving.org/mobility/mobility.pdf (accessed 01/01/2007).
  165. (2001). Modelling winners and losers in contingent valuation of public goods: appropriate welfare measures and econometric analysis",
  166. (2001). Monetization of environmental impact of roads, available at: http://www.geocities.com/davefergus/Transportation/2CHAP2.htm (accessed 09/11/2005).
  167. (1998). Monitoring and post-auditing in environmental impact assessment: a review",
  168. (1987). New philosophies of social science: realism, hermeneutics and critical theory,
  169. (2003). New visions for addressing sustainability",
  170. (1999). Observations on the new approach to the appraisal of road projects",
  171. (2001). On the government of disability",
  172. (1997). On valuing morbidity, cost-effectiveness, and being rude",
  173. (1994). Overview of internalising the social costs of transport",
  174. (2000). Participatory appraisal approaches versus sample survey data collection: a case of smallholder farmers well-being ranking in Njombe District, Tanzania",
  175. Passenger demand forecasting handbook,
  176. (2007). Picturebank, available at: http://www.changepeople.co.uk (accessed 17/08/07).
  177. (2004). Policy modes, firms and the natural environment",
  178. (1994). Politics and language: understanding the disability discourse available at: http://www.leeds.ac.uk/disabilitystudies/archiveuk/Oliver/pol%20and%20lang%2094.pdf, (accessed 27/08/2007).
  179. (2006). Population aging, available at: http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Economics/Papers/2006/2006-09_paper.pdf (accessed 30/05/2007).
  180. (1997). Productivity costs measurement through quality of life? A response to the recommendations of the Washington Panel",
  181. (2000). Project appraisal and capital investment decision making in the Scottish water industry",
  182. (1999). Project appraisal for the Keynesian investment planner",
  183. (2004). Qualitative mini-project interviews (unpublished Report).
  184. (2001). Qualitative research in systematic reviews",
  185. (2001). Quality whole route plus: stated preference surveys, final report (unpublished Report).
  186. (2004). Rail map for people with reduced mobility,
  187. (2000). Rail passenger quality of service valuations, UK Department for Transport, available at: http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/rail/researchtech/research/railpassengerqualityofservic 3467 (accessed 27/08/2007).
  188. (2003). Ready, willing and disabled,
  189. (2002). Real world research, 2nd ed, Blackwell, Oxford. Cited in:
  190. (2003). Realist evaluation in practice: health and social work,
  191. (2005). Recommended Guidelines for Transport Operators
  192. (2001). Recreation Management in Venice Lagoon, available at: http://oregonstate.edu/Dept/IIFET/2000/abstracts/defrancesco.html (accessed 23/06/2005).
  193. (1992). Rendel Planning and Environmental Appraisal Group
  194. (1982). Report by the committee on restrictions against disabled people, HMSO, London. Cited in: Barnes,
  195. (1997). Researching disabling barriers",
  196. (2003). Residential property value and locational externalities: on the complementarity and substitutability of approaches",
  197. (1999). Rethinking Cost-Benefit Analysis,
  198. (2000). Setting health priorities in a Swiss canton: what do different methods tell us?",
  199. (2004). Social exclusion and the provision of public transport,
  200. (2005). Social exclusion, mobility and access",
  201. (2006). Social inclusion: transport aspects, UG320, UK Department for Transport, available at: http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/inclusion/socialinclusiontransportaspects (accessed 27/08/2007).
  202. (2004). Social inclusion/exclusion: dancing the dialectic",
  203. (2002). Social Model theory: the story so far…",
  204. (1989). Social norms and economic theory",
  205. (1999). Socioeconomic evaluation in medicine in Europe: core economic concepts",
  206. (1984). Specification tests for the multinomial logit model",
  207. (2000). Stated choice methods: analysis and application, First ed,
  208. (2002). Strategic environmental assessment: a new paradigm for the EU?",
  209. (2007). Study on application of the socioeconomic evaluation technique to traffic barrier-free improvement/development projects", TRANSED
  210. (2001). Sustainability appraisals of regional planning guidance and regional economic strategies in England: an assessment",
  211. (2003). Teaching the Coase Theorem: are we getting it right?",
  212. (2002). The Analysis of Environmental Case Studies",
  213. (1999). The behavioral basis of non-market evaluation",
  214. (2002). The benefits of building barrier-free: a contingent valuation of accessibility as an attribute of housing",
  215. (1996). The case for step-free access to the Underground, Research note M(96)27, London Transport Marketing,
  216. (2002). The difference a job makes: the effects of employment among people with disabilities",
  217. (2002). The distribution problem in economic evaluation: Income and the valuation of costs and consequences of health care programmes",
  218. (2001). The double public good: a conceptual framework for ''shared experience'' values associated with heritage conservation",
  219. (2005). The duty to promote disability equality, Statutory Code of Practice,
  220. (2002). The economic and social justification for publicly financed stadia: the case of Vancouver's BC Place stadium",
  221. (1999). The economic framework for health service evaluation and the role for discretion, available at: http://www.buseco.monash.edu.au/centres/che/pubs/wp105.pdf (accessed 6/8/2005).
  222. (1998). The economic value of caring",
  223. (2005). The economic value of informal care: a study of informal caregivers' and patients' willingness to pay and willingness to accept for informal care",
  224. (2004). The economics of environmental change and pollution management - issues and approaches from South Asia",
  225. (1994). The fine line between evaluation and explanation",
  226. (1996). The future of public transport: the dangers of viewing policy through rose-tinted spectacles",
  227. (2003). The Green Book: Appraisal and Evaluation in Central Government, available at: http://greenbook.treasury.gov.uk/ (accessed 02/01/2004).
  228. (1991). The green economy: environment, sustainable development and the politics of the future,
  229. (2000). The impact of human capital on non-market outcomes and feedbacks on economic development, available at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/5/60/1825143.pdf (accessed 08/08/05).
  230. (2005). The implications on willingness to pay of respondents ignoring specific attributes",
  231. (1991). The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields",
  232. (2003). The mustsee tramsite for all tramsurfers, available at: http://www.noisefactory.co.uk/2003cw1gp2/Tramzene%20Web%20Site/index. html (accessed 11/02/2006).
  233. (1995). The nature and causes of transport disability in Britain, and how to remove it",
  234. (1991). The new institutionalism in organizational analysis,
  235. (2007). The new institutionalism, available at: http://www.stanford.edu/group/song/papers/NewInstitutionalism.pdf (accessed 25/08/2007).
  236. (1998). The polluter pays versus the pollutee pays principle under asymmetric information",
  237. (2001). The promise of a realist synthesis, Working Paper 4, ESRC Evidence Network, Centre for Evidence Based Policy and Practice, available at: http://www.evidencenetwork.org/documents/wp4.pdf (accessed 27/08/2007).
  238. (1998). The questionable economics of governmental accounting",
  239. (2001). The role of economic evaluation in mental health care",
  240. (1995). The social costs and benefits of urban consolidation: a time budget/contingent valuation approach",
  241. (1996). The socio-economic benefits of a universal telephone network",
  242. The Trams (2006), Sheffield Supertram, available at: http://www.thetrams.co.uk/supertram/ (accessed 11/02/2006).
  243. (2000). The use of conjoint analysis to elicit willingness-to-pay values: proceed with caution?",
  244. (1997). The valuation of health care intangible assets", Health care management review,
  245. (2003). The value of life and health for public policy",
  246. (2003). The value of life: individual preferences and social choice. A comment to Magnus Johannesson",
  247. (2004). The well-being of informal caregivers: a monetary valuation of informal care, available at: http://www.uvaaias.net/files/aias/personal/InformalCareHealth_Economics.pdf (accessed 3/6/2005).
  248. Time use and childcare - further tables, available at: http://www.eoc.org.uk/Default.aspx?page=15847 (accessed 09/08/2007).
  249. (1997). Total cost analysis: an alternative to benefit-cost analysis in evaluating transportation alternatives",
  250. (2003). Towards a methodology for developing evidence-informed management knowledge by means of systematic review",
  251. (2007). Transport analysis guidance, available at: http://www.webtag.org.uk/ (accessed 08/08/2007).
  252. (2000). Transport and social exclusion in London",
  253. (2002). Transport and Works Act 1992: the Greater Manchester (Leigh Busway) Order, available at: http://www.gmpte.com/upload/library/leighsoc.pdf (accessed 05/08/2005).
  254. (1994). Transport planning,
  255. (2003). Transport policy for an ageing population",
  256. (1998). Transport policy in the EU: a strategy for development?",
  257. (1995). Transport policy: a critical role for strategic environmental assessment",
  258. (2000). Transport ten year plan, available at: http://www.dft.gov.uk/162259/165259/tenyearplan (accessed 27/08/2007).
  259. (2003). Transportation cost and benefit analysis: techniques, estimates and implications,
  260. (1996). Understanding disability: from theory to practice,
  261. (2001). Using choice experiments for non-market valuation",
  262. (1998). Using choice experiments to value the environment",
  263. (2002). Using conjoint analysis to quantify public preferences over the environmental impacts of wind farms. An example from Spain",
  264. (2002). Using data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate environmental quality and justice: a different way of looking at the same old numbers",
  265. (2001). Using economic evaluations to reduce the burden of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease",
  266. (2004). Using stated preference discrete choice modeling to evaluate health care programs",
  267. (2000). Value of public goods from sports stadiums: the CVM approach",
  268. (2000). Values, public policy, and community food security",
  269. (1998). Valuing forests, available at: http://www.sekon.slu.se/%7Ebkr/missouri.PDF (accessed 09/09/2004).
  270. (2003). Valuing the benefits and costs of health care programmes:where's the 'extra' in extra-welfarism?",
  271. (2001). Valuing the Public Benefits of Heritage Listing of Commercial Buildings,
  272. (2003). Virtual outreach: economic evaluation of joint teleconsultations for patients referred by their general practitioner for a specialist opinion",
  273. (2007). Watchdog calls for priority to be given to London, available at: http://www.londontravelwatch.org.uk/news.php?id=492 (accessed 05/08/2007).
  274. (2002). Water companies' service performance and environmental trade-offs",
  275. (1996). What to do when win-win won't work: environmental strategies for costly regulation",
  276. (2006). What you don't know might hurt you: some unresolved issues in the design and analysis of discrete choice experiments",
  277. (2007). Who we are - page 2 of 2: list of current activities, available at: http://www.uktram.co.uk/who2.htm (accessed 30/05/2007).
  278. (1999). Willingness to pay as a measure of the benefits of mental health care",
  279. (2001). Willingness to pay for environmental improvements in a large city evidence from the Spike model and from a non-parametric approach",
  280. (2003). Written answers to questions

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.