Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Arc-based sensing in narrow groove pipe welding

By Agostinho Gil Teixeira Lopes

Abstract

Big gains in productivity are found in tandem and dual tandem pipeline welding but require highly skilled operators who have to control the position of the torch very accurately for long periods. This leads to high demands on the skills and stamina of the operators of mechanised pipeline welding systems. There is a very strong motivation to fully automate the welding process in order to reduce the required skills and to improve consistency. This project focuses on the use of through-the-arc sensing for seam following and contact-tip-workpiecedistance (CTWD) control. A review of literature reveals very little development work on arc sensing for Pulsed Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW-P) in narrow grooves. GMAW-P is often used to achieve optimum properties in weld quality and fusion characteristics and also positional welding capability, all of which are important factors for pipeline welding. The use of through-the-arc sensing for narrow groove pipe welding applications poses specific challenges due to the steep groove sidewalls and the use of short arc lengths, producing very different behaviour compared to V-groove arc sensing techniques. Tandem welding is also quite different from single wire techniques with both wires working in close proximity producing mutual interferences in arc signals. An investigation was conducted in order to assess GMAW-P arc signals and it was found that improved consistency, higher sensitivity and less noise was present in voltages in the peak current period (peak voltages) used for torch position control. As a result of this investigation, a CTWD and cross-seam control system was developed and tested for single and tandem GMAW-P, using a 5º narrow groove. The test results have revealed accuracies for both controls of better than 0.2 mm. CTWD control was developed by following the existent welding procedure voltage average and cross-seam control by peak voltage comparison between maximum torch excursions. Experiments were also performed to evaluate the influence of torch oscillation frequency on arc voltage behaviour and sensitivity, along with weld bead characteristics and fusion profiles. The resultant arc signal sensitivity was consistent with the results found in the literature for conventional GMAW. For GMAW-P, although no data was available from the literature for comparison, the results have shown no increase in sensitivity with the increase of oscillation frequency with the welding setup used. Bead profile analysis performed at different sidewall proximities indicated that optimum wire to sidewall proximities can be found between 0 mm and +0.2 mm, measured from the outer edge of the wire to the sidewall corner. Accurate control is required since +1 mm proximity produced poor sidewall fusion and no signal differentiation for control recognition of groove width. This work showed that negative proximities or wire proximity beyond the sidewall produce wire burn back and hence very long arc lengths, resulting in poor depths of penetration and shallower beads, with major undercut defects. In addition, this work has also shown the importance of torch oscillation width control, in order to produce accurate cross-seam control. A method is proposed to achieve torch oscillation width control by a continuous peak voltage comparison between centre and sidewall torch positions, using the optimum values of wire to sidewall proximity found and the resultant peak voltage value. This control will also provide a clear indication of actual groove width. Clearly this data can also be used to implement a system which adapts welding parameters to groove width.BP Exploration and Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI

Publisher: Cranfield University
Year: 2006
OAI identifier: oai:dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk:1826/1514
Provided by: Cranfield CERES

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (2005). A Closer Look At The Advanced CODAS Moving Average Algorithm.
  2. (2006). A digital revolution. World Pipelines,
  3. (1989). A history of pulsed MIG welding. Joining and Materials,
  4. A process and an apparatus for arc welding with high-speed weaving,
  5. (1993). A self-organising fuzzy control approach to arc sensor for weld joint tracking in gas metal arc welding of butt joints. Welding Journal. Vol.,
  6. (2001). A study of an arc sensor model for gas metal arc welding with rotating arc. Part 2: Simulation of an arc sensor in mechanically rotating gas metal arc welding. doi
  7. (2000). A study on narrow gap gas metal arc welding using electromagnetic arc oscillation.
  8. (1999). A welding joint tracking detection algorithm for arc sensor based on neuro clustering.
  9. Active through-arc control of stick-out in mechanised girth welding systems.
  10. (1994). Adaptive Control of Weld Bead Shape Utilizing Arc Sensor
  11. (1983). Adaptively controlled MIG narrow gap welding. Developments and Innovations for Improved Welding Production,
  12. (1988). Adjustment of model of arc sensor for adaptive welding robot. Weld Quality The Role of Computers, doi
  13. (1998). Advance in arc sensing system for automatic seam tracking. doi
  14. (1992). Advanced Welding Processes, doi
  15. (1996). An analysis of the dynamic characteristics of an arc sensor for dc MIG/MAG welding in open arc mode: study of improvement of sensitivity and reliability of arc sensors doi
  16. (1994). An intelligent arc welding robot with simultaneous control of penetration depth and bead height.
  17. (1983). Analysing metal transfer during MIG welding. Welding and Metal Fabrication,
  18. (1979). Application of fast weaving to CO2 arc welding. Report 1: On bead appearance and spattering loss.
  19. (1999). Application of neural network to arc sensor. doi
  20. Arc sensing system for automatic weld seam tracking. II - Signal processing. doi
  21. (1994). Arc sensing using fuzzy control. doi
  22. (1991). Arc sensor used in MIG/MAG weld tracking. Transactions of the China Welding Institution. Vol.,
  23. (1987). Automatic groove tracing control method for arc welding.
  24. (1998). Automatic quality monitoring in GMA [MIG/MAG] welding using signal processing methods.
  25. (1995). Automatic simultaneous control of bead height and back bead shape using an arc sensor in one-sided welding with a backing plate. Welding International. Vol., doi
  26. (1994). Automating the Welding Process - successful implementation of automated welding systems.
  27. (1989). Bevel profiling control method for arc welding.
  28. BHK type narrow gap GMA welding process, in Narrow Gap Welding (NGW), The State-of-the-Art
  29. Changes of weld pool shape by variations in the distribution of heat source in arc welding.
  30. (2003). Characteristics of welding and arc signal in narrow groove [narrow gap] gas metal arc welding using electromagnetic arc oscillation. doi
  31. (2005). Common User Access - CUA.
  32. Comparison of constant current and pulsed gas metal arc welding processes on basis of electrode resistive dissipation. doi
  33. (2000). Computational intelligence in manufacturing handbook. doi
  34. (1958). Control of Melting Rate and Metal Transfer in Gas Shielded Metal-Arc Welding: Part I – Control of Electrode Melting Rate. Welding Journal,
  35. (1995). Controlling of torch attitude and seam tracking using neuro arc sensor. The, doi
  36. (2001). Dependence of melting rate in MIG/MAG welding on the type of shielding gas used doi
  37. Detection of end point of fillet joint by using mechanised rotating arc sensor.
  38. (1994). Development and application of arc sensor control with a high speed rotating arc process.
  39. (1986). Development and application of narrow-gap GMA welding process with corrugated wire,
  40. (2000). Development of a Closed-loop Through-the-ArcSensing Controller for Seam Tracking in Gas Metal Arc Welding.
  41. (2001). Development of an arc sensor model using a fuzzy controller in gas metal arc welding. doi
  42. (2003). Development of an arc sensor with mechanized rotation of electrode. Materials Science Forum. Vol., doi
  43. (1989). Development of articulated arc welding robot with high speed rotating arc process. doi
  44. (1986). Development of automatic fillet welding process with high speed rotating arc. doi
  45. (2001). Development of high speed rotating arc sensor and seam tracking controller for welding robots. doi
  46. (2001). Development of high-frequency oscillating arc. Report 2: Arc sensor for simultaneous detection of torch aiming deviation and gap width. Welding International. Vol., doi
  47. (1990). Development of intelligent machine for all-positional MAG welding.
  48. (1996). Development of lattice welding robot with arc sensing control.
  49. (1989). Development of multi-electrodes automatic fillet welding equipment with high speed rotating arc. doi
  50. (2006). Different bead shapes at different angles of girth welding.
  51. Digital image analysis: improving accuracy and reproducibility of radiographic measurement. doi
  52. Direct arc sensing for robot MIG welding.
  53. (2001). Dynamic model for electrode melting rate in gas metal arc welding process. doi
  54. (1999). Dynamic Modeling of Electrode Melting Rate in the GMAW Process. doi
  55. Dynamic Modeling of GMAW Process. doi
  56. (1999). Dynamic modelling of electrode melting rate doi
  57. (2001). Effects of welding heat input on microstructure and hardness in heat-affected zone of HQ130 steel. Modelling and Simulation doi
  58. (1987). Electric arc sensing for robot positioning control. Robot Welding,,
  59. (1992). Enhanced narrow gap pipeline welding using computer control and through-the-arc tracking technology. Pipeline Reliability,
  60. (2003). Estimation of arc length and wire extension using neural network. Welding International. Vol., doi
  61. (1987). Estimation of Contact Tip--Workpiece Distance in GMA Welding. doi
  62. Evaluation of the voltage drop in electrode metal droplets under MIG/MAG welding conditions.
  63. (2001). Experimental analysis of rotating arc behaviors in a rotary arc gap switch for a 500 kJ capacitor bank. doi
  64. (1999). Financial Mathematics, in Pocket Book of Integrals and Mathematical Formulas. doi
  65. (1984). Further improvement of narrow gap welding techniques. Joining of Metals,
  66. (1986). Fusion characteristics in P-GMAW of mild steel, in WERC.
  67. (1993). Fuzzy control of multi-freedom welding machine. China Welding. Vol.,
  68. (1986). General review - The state-of-the-art of narrow gap welding (NGW)
  69. (1998). Heat transfer in pulsed gas metal arc welding.
  70. (1995). High speed rotary automatic arc welding technology. Kinzoku,
  71. (1997). High speed rotating arc sensor. Transactions of the China Welding Institution. Vol.,
  72. (1990). Intelligent arc welding robot with simultaneous control of penetration depth and bead height. doi
  73. (1998). Keynote address - through-the-arc-sensing in GMA-welding with high speed rotating torch. doi
  74. (2005). Light mechanisation. Easy and cost-efficient with ESAB. Svetsaren - The Esab welding and cutting journal,
  75. (2005). Mechanised welding of pipelines. Svetsaren - The Esab welding and cutting journal,
  76. (2002). Method and apparatus for determining seam tracking control of arc welding.
  77. (1996). Modelling of an arc sensor for d.c. MIG/MAG welding in open arc mode: study of improvement of sensitivity and reliability of arc sensors doi
  78. (1986). Narrow gap GMA welding process "twist arc welding process", in Narrow Gap Welding (NGW), The State-of-the-Art
  79. (1984). Narrow gap MIG welding process with high speed rotating arc.
  80. (1986). Narrow gap welding process with high speed rotating arc, in Narrow Gap Welding (NGW), The Stateof-the-Art
  81. Narrow gap welding process with oscillating arc "Loopnap", in Narrow Gap Welding (NGW), The State-of-the-Art
  82. Narrow groove twin-wire GMAW [gas metal arc welding] of high-strength steel.
  83. (2003). Natural Gas Consumption timeline.
  84. (2002). Optimum arc length and arc voltage
  85. (2003). Part 1: Dynamic behaviour of arc welding. In Book: Arc Welding Control. Publ: Abington, doi
  86. (2003). Part 3: Arc sensors and seam tracking. In Book: Arc Welding Control. Publ: Abington, doi
  87. (2002). Prediction of weld bead geometry and penetration in shielded metal-arc welding using artificial neural networks. doi
  88. Process-oriented welding head guidance system for gas-shielded metal-arc narrow-gap welding
  89. (2004). Qualification test of welders — Fusion welding —. doi
  90. (1990). Recent advances in GMAW [gas metal arc welding] processes in Japan.
  91. (1985). Rotary arc-welding apparatus.
  92. Rotating arc narrow gap MIG welding process, in Narrow Gap Welding (NGW), The State-of-the-Art
  93. (1998). Seam tracking control by fuzzy logic in pulsed gas metal arc welding.
  94. (1978). Seam tracking systems with the arc as sensor. in 'Advances in welding processes',
  95. (1986). Sensing and control of arc welding. doi
  96. (1996). Sensor for automatic arc welding: advantages and limitations.
  97. (1997). Sensors control gas metal arc welding.
  98. (1984). Sidewall-matching adaptive control system for welding.
  99. (1999). Simulation of rotational arc sensing in gas metal arc metal. doi
  100. Specification - Version 2.0. 1991: Robert Bosch GmbH, doi
  101. (1999). Spectrum Estimation and Modeling, doi
  102. (1990). Statistical modelling of the narrow gap gas metal arc welding process. doi
  103. (2001). Synchronised data acquisition and video imaging of metal transfer in gas metal arc welding.
  104. (1977). Synergic Pulse MIG Welding.
  105. (1983). System considerations in welding automation : impact on the production chain.
  106. (1983). Temperature fields produced by travelling distributed heat sources. Welding Journal,
  107. (1998). The Handbook of Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors. doi
  108. (1996). Theoretical model and signal processing of [welding] arc sensor. Transactions of the China Welding Institution. Vol.,
  109. (2003). Through arc adaptive control of GMAW: Requirements for high productivity girth welding of pipe.
  110. (1995). Through the arc sensing - a multipurpose low-cost sensor for arc welding automation (Lichtbogensensor - ein vielseitiger, preisgunstiger Sensor fur das automatische Lichtbogenschweissen). DVS Berichte,
  111. (1996). Through the arc sensing - a universal and multipurpose sensor for arc welding automation.
  112. (2001). Through the arc tracking of 5G narrow gap pipe welds.
  113. (1998). Through-the-arc sensing and control in pulsed gas metal arc welding. doi
  114. (1988). Through-the-arc sensing and control methods in robotic arc welding. doi
  115. (1998). Through-the-arc sensing in GMA-welding with high speed rotating torch. doi
  116. (2001). Ultranarrow GMAW [MIG/MAG welding] process with newly developed wire melting control system. doi
  117. (2002). Vector Informatik GmbH, CAN Driver Library - User Interface Description for Visual Basic -
  118. (2001). Visual Basic for Windows -
  119. (2004). Voltage drop in electrode molten metal droplets under MIG/MAG welding conditions.
  120. (1999). Wave designer: pulsed GMAW online waveform editor and soft oscilloscope.
  121. (1989). Weld-line tracking control of arc welding robot using fuzzy logic controller. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, doi
  122. (1998). Welding personnel - Approval testing of welding operators for fusion welding and resistance weld setters for fully mechanized and automatic welding of metallic materials. doi
  123. (1980). Wire melting rate, droplet temperature and effective anode heating potential.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.