Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Ecophysiological approaches to production and formulation of the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala

By Stella Mokiou

Abstract

To produce commercial biocontrol agents (BCAs) successfully, it is important that cheap and economic substrates are used which support high numbers of good quality inoculum. Production of formulations conserving ecological competence and shelf-life should also be ensured. With this in mind, studies focusing on yeast ecophysiology were conducted to produce and formulate ecologically competent P. anomala cells for controlling spoilage of moist cereal grain. The liquid culture systems used were synthetic, nutrient yeast dextrose broth (NYDB), and a complex (industry byproduct, cane molasses) media. Manipulation of cultural conditions by means of imposing water-stress with several solute additions to the media had an impact on yield, cell water potentials (Ψc), viability and endogenous sugar/polyol accumulation. Glucose addition resulted in higher yeast yield (6.15 and 3.4 mg cell ml-1 medium for NYDB and molasses, respectively). Water activity (aw) modifications of the media resulted in modification of Ψc so that Ψc ≤ Ψw (medium water potential). The change in yeast Ψc was attributed to the intracellular accumulation/synthesis of polyols, mostly glycerol and arabitol and sugars, mostly trehalose. In molasses-based medium cells accumulated/synthesized trehalose [32 mg g-1 fresh weight (f.w.) yeast cell]. Higher amounts of endogenous trehalose (up to 140 mg g-1 f.w. yeast cell) were retained intracellularly when modified yeast cells were isotonically washed compared to those subjected to hypo-osmotic shock by washing with water. The pattern was similar for endogenous arabitol. Trehalose retention doubled and quadrupled, and arabitol increased by 65 and 100% in proline and NaCl treatments respectively. The molasses control medium gave high [>1010 colony forming units (CFU) ml-1] cell viability, which was further increased by addition of NaCl and proline (≈ 3x1010CFU ml-1). Fluidised bed drying of yeast cells showed that drying at 50oC for 20 min resulted in high cell viability (67%) and low moisture content (7%). Osmoprotection and several carriers and adjuvants affected viability and moisture content. Cotton seed flour (CSF) + 10% skimmed milk (SM) resulted in the highest cell protection (74%) during the drying process, with a final moisture content of about 5% and this was easy to resuspend. Storage stability of the formulation was 50% at 4oC and ambienta temperatures for up to 150 days. P. anomala cells grown in NaCl ii modified molasses-media, when osmoprotected, retained four times more trehalose and resulted in significantly increased survival after drying and storage stability for 150 days. When SM + sucrose at 10% (w/v) was used as a protective solution, P. anomala cells were highly resistant to freezing, thawing and freeze drying processes. Storage stability at 4oC of freeze dried P. anomala cells was particularly high (>86%) over a period of 150 days while storage at 22oC resulted in a rapid decrease in cell viability to <35% over a period of 30 days. Osmoprotection using post-harvest isotonic washing treatment had no effect on storage stability. P. anomala produced high β-(1-3)-glucanase (>2.2 activity units), low chitinase (<0.9 activity units) and β-glucosidase (<3 nmol 4-nitrophenol min µg protein of specific enzyme activity)-1-1 amounts. The role of the first hydrolase in biocontrol activity is possibly important while that of the other two is not clear for P. anomala. In lab-scale bioassays using wheat grain under aerobic conditions, populations of P. verrucosum 22625 were significantly reduced by formulated P. anomala cells at both 0.93 and 0.95 aw levels while OTA production was significantly reduced at 0.93 aw only

Publisher: Cranfield University at Silsoe
Year: 2004
OAI identifier: oai:dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk:1826/932
Provided by: Cranfield CERES

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (1993). A gene encoding snglycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) complements an osmosensitive mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. doi
  2. a Toxic Metabolite Produced by Aspergillus ochraceus Wilh. doi
  3. (2000). Accumulation of Compatible Solutes doi
  4. (1998). Activity of hydrolytic enzymes of Candida albicans strains isolated from patients with periodontal and membrane mucosae of oral cavity 200References diseases.
  5. (1986). Adaptation of microorgansims to climatic conditions affecting aerial plant surfaces. In: Microbiology of the phyllopshere.
  6. (1989). Adjuvants, terminology, classification and mode of action. In:
  7. (1990). Alginate pellet formulation of a Beauvaria bassiana isolate pathogenic to Cereal Aphids. doi
  8. (1999). Analysis of the enzymatic activity of mycelial and yeast phases of Penicillium marneffei. doi
  9. (1991). Antagonistic microorganisms as biocontrol agents of post-harvest diseases of fruit and vegetables. doi
  10. (2001). Assay of Ochratoxin A in Wine and Beer by High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography Photodiode Array and Gas Chromatography Mass Selective Detection. doi
  11. (2001). Aureobasidium pullulans (LS-30) an antagonist of post-harvest pathogens of fruits: study on its mode of action. doi
  12. (1993). Biochemical engineering aspects of solid-state fermentation. doi
  13. (1997). Biocontrol capability of Metschnikowia pulcherrima against Botrytis post-harvest rot of apple. doi
  14. (2004). Biocontrol of Grain Spoilage Moulds, Mode of action of Pichia anomala.
  15. (1995). Biocontrol of mould in high-moisture wheat stored under airtight conditions by Pichia anomala, Pichia guilliermondii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. doi
  16. (1988). Biocontrol of post-harvest diseases of apples with antagonistic mixtures. doi
  17. (2004). Biocontrol of post-harvest diseases of jujube fruit by Cryptococcus laurentii combined with a low dosage of fungicides under different storage conditions. doi
  18. (1992). Biocontrol product fermentation, formulation and marketing. doi
  19. (1988). Biological control of diseases of fruits. doi
  20. (1998). Biological control of major post-harvest pathogens on apple with Candida sake. doi
  21. (1992). Biological control of post-harvest disease of fruits and vegetables: recent advances. doi
  22. (1989). Biological control of post-harvest diseases. doi
  23. (1991). Biological control of post-harvest fruit diseases. A: Handbook of applied mycology. doi
  24. (1994). Biological Control of Postharvset Diseases of Fruits and Vegetables- Theory and Practice.
  25. (1972). Bioproduction of ochratoxin A and penicillic acid bymembers of the Aspergillus ochraceus Group. doi
  26. (1993). Biosynthesis of aflatoxin-the role of nutrition factors. doi
  27. (1990). Carbon concentration and C-N ration influences submerged culture conidiation by the potential bioherbicide Colletotrichum truncatum NRRL 137371.
  28. (1995). Catheter-related infections by Hansenula anomala in children. doi
  29. (1999). Chemically defined media for commercial fermentations. doi
  30. (1993). Chitin synthesis and degradation as targets for pesticide action. doi
  31. (1991). Chitinase is required for cell separation during the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  32. (1995). Cloning and characterisation of GPD2, a sond gene encoding sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and its comparison with GPD1. doi
  33. (1998). Colonization of maize grain by Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium proliferatum in the presence of competing fungi and their impact on fumonisin production. doi
  34. (2004). Combinations of fungicides with phylloplane yeasts for improved control of Botrytis cinerea on geranium seedlings. doi
  35. (2001). Commercial use of fungi as plant disease biological control agents: status and prospects. In: Fungi as Biocontrol Agents. doi
  36. (2002). Commission regulation (EC) no. 472/2002 of12
  37. (1990). Comparison of the solute induced protein stabilisation in aqueous solution and in the frozen and dried states. doi
  38. (2004). Comparison of three commonly used drying technologies and longevity of aerial conidia of Beauveria brongniartii and Metarhizium anisopliae. doi
  39. (1978). Compatible solutes and extreme water stress in eukariotic microorganisms. doi
  40. (1991). Conidial biomass and desiccation tolerance of Trichoderma harzianum produced at different water potentials. doi
  41. (2001). Conservation and release of osmolytes by yeasts during hypo-osmotic stress. doi
  42. (1987). Conservation of yeasts by dehydration. doi
  43. (1996). Control of post-harvest pear diseases using natural saprothytic yeast colonists and their combination with a low dosage of thiabendazole. doi
  44. (1996). Culture age, temperature and pH affect the polyol and trehalose contents of fungal propagules.
  45. (1995). Defense responses of plants to pathogens. doi
  46. (2000). Detection and differentiation between mycotoxigenic and non-mycotoxigenic strains of two Fusarium spp. using volatile production profiles and hydrolytic enymes. doi
  47. (1995). Development of microbial community of bacterial and yeast antagonists to control wound-invading post-harvest pathogens of fruits.
  48. (1995). Differential importance of trehalose in stress resistance in fermenting and nonfermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.
  49. (1976). Distribution of yeasts and yeasts-like organisms on aerial surface of developping apples and grapes. In: Microbiology of aerial plant surfaces. doi
  50. (2001). Drying and formulation of blastospores of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Hypomycetes) produced in two different liquid media.
  51. (2003). Drying of Conidia of Penicillium oxalicum, a Biological Control Agent against Fusarium Wilt of Tomato. doi
  52. (2003). Drying of Epicoccum nigrum conidia for obtaining a shelf-stable biological product against brown rot disease. doi
  53. (2004). Dynamics and control of ochratoxigenic strains of Penicillium verrucosum and Aspergillus ochraceus in the stored grain ecosystem. PhD Thesis,
  54. Economic methods of cereal grain drying to prevent spoilage and loss of quality. In:
  55. (1998). Ecophysiological responses of the biocontrol yeast Candida sake to water, temperature and pH stress. doi
  56. (2000). Ecophysiology, mass production and quality improvement of Ulocladium atrum inoculum, for enhanced biological control of foliar pathogens.
  57. (1994). Effect of carbohydrate type and concentration on polyhydroxy alcohol and trehalose content of conidia of three entomopathogenic fungi. doi
  58. (1985). Effect of drying medium on residual mositure content and viability of freeze dried lactic acid bacteria. doi
  59. (2001). Effect of freeze drying and protectants on viability of the biocontrol yeast Candida sake. doi
  60. (2000). Effect of protective agents, rehydration media and initial cell concentration on viability of Pantoea agglomerans strain CPA-2 subjected to freeze-drying. doi
  61. (1999). Effect of protective solutes on leakage form and survival of immobilised Lactobacillus subjected to drying, storage and rehydration. doi
  62. (1998). Effect of water activity on hydrolytic enzyme production by Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium proliferatum during colonization of maize. doi
  63. (1994). Effects of KCl concentration on accumulation of acyclic sugar alcohols and trehalose in conidia of three entomopathogenic fungi. doi
  64. (1987). Effects of sodium chloride concentration on phospholipid fatty acid composition of yeasts differing in osmotolerance. doi
  65. (1990). Effects of temperature, soil moisture, and wheat bran on growth of Trichoderma harzianum from alginate pellets. doi
  66. (1997). Effects of various types of stress on the metabolism of reserve carbohydrates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: genetic evidence for a stress-induced recycling of glycogen and trehalose. doi
  67. (1987). Effects of water activity on growth and sporulation of Paecilomyces farinosus in liquid and solid media. doi
  68. (1997). Efficacy of commercial formulation of two biofungicides for control of blue mold and gray mold of apples in cold storage. doi
  69. (1985). Encapsulation of potential biocontrol agents in alginate-clay matrix. doi
  70. (2001). Enzymatic activity of yeast species isolated from bovine mastitis.
  71. (1973). Ethyl acetate production by Hansenula anomala.
  72. (1995). Evaluation of antagonistic strains of Fusarium spp. in the biological and integrated control of Fusarium wilt of cyclamen. doi
  73. (1988). Evaluation of the stain Viablue for the rapid evaluation of viable yeast cells. doi
  74. (2001). Exploring the mode of action of Pichia anomala - a post-harvest biocontrol yeast.
  75. (1956). Fallacy of “crushing death” in frozen bacterial suspension. doi
  76. (1997). Fluidised bed drying of baker yeast: moisture levels, drying rates abd viability changes during drying. doi
  77. (1991). Formulation and delivery systems of biocontrol agents with emphasis on fungi. In: The rhizosphere and plant doi
  78. (1993). Formulation of biological control agents. In: Exploitation of microorganisms. doi
  79. (1998). Formulation of microorganisms to control plant diseases. In: Formulation of Microbial Biopesticides. doi
  80. (1998). Formulations of Biopesticides. In: Biopesticides: Use doi
  81. (1992). Freeze drying of Microorganisms. In
  82. (1991). Fungal pathogens influencing cereal seed quality at harvest. In: Cereal Grain: Mycotoxins, Fungi and Quality in Drying doi
  83. (1997). Fungi and Food Spoilage, 2 nd edition. doi
  84. (1991). Fungi in cereal grains: Their occurrence and water and temperature relationships. In:
  85. (1997). Fungi in extreme environments.
  86. (1998). Genes from mycoparasitic fungi as a source for improving plant resistance to fungal pathogens. doi
  87. (2001). Genetic characterization of the nonconventional yeast Hansenula anomala. doi
  88. (1994). GPD1, which encodes glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, is essential for growth under osmotic stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and its expression is regulated by the high osmolarity glycerol response pathway.
  89. (1981). Growth of Debaryomyces hansenii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in relation to pH and salinity. doi
  90. (1968). Growth rate patterns of the so-called osmophilic and non-osmophilic yeasts in solutions of polyethylene glycol. doi
  91. (1990). Guidelines for production of Bacillus thuringiensis H14 and Bacillus sphaericus.
  92. (1991). Hansenula anomala infections in children-from asyptomatic colonization to tissue invasion. doi
  93. (1999). Human Ochratoxicosis. doi
  94. (1999). Hydrogen bonding between sugar and protein is responsible for inhibition of dehydrationinduced protein unfolding. doi
  95. (2002). Hydrolytic enzymes and antifungal compounds produced by Tilletiopsis species, phyllosphere yeasts that are antagonists of powdery mildew fungi. doi
  96. (2004). Impact of osmotic and matric water stress on germination, growth, mycelial water potentials and endogenous accumulation of sugars and sugar alcohols in Fusarium graminearum. doi
  97. (2004). Impact of water relations on the production, ecological fitness and stability of the biocontrol fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. PhD Thesis.
  98. (1994). Improved biological control by changing polyols/trehalose in conidia of entomopathogens. In:
  99. (2000). Improved control of apple and citrus fruit decay with a combination of Candida saitoana and 2-deoxy-D-glucose. doi
  100. (1998). Improvement of growth and biocontrol ability of Epicoccum nigrum under water stress.
  101. (1998). Improving ecological fitness and environmental stress tolerance of the biocontrol yeast Candida sake by manipulation of intracellular sugar alcohol and sugar content. doi
  102. (2001). Improving water stress tolerance of the biocontrol yeast Candida sake grown in molasses-based media by physiological manipulation. doi
  103. (1987). Infective endocarditis of a bicuspid aortic-valve caused by Hansenula anomala. doi
  104. (1993). Inhibition of the growth of grain-storage moulds in vitro by the yeast Pichia anomala (Hansen) Kurtzman. doi
  105. (1999). Inhibitory effect of seven Allium plants upon three Aspergillus species. doi
  106. (2004). Integrated control of post-harvest diseases of peaches with a yeast antagonist, hot water and modified atmosphere packaging. doi
  107. (1995). Introduction to food-borne fungi. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelculture, Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences,
  108. (2001). Introduction-Fungal Control Agents: Progress, Problems and Potential. In: Fungi as Biocontrol Agents. doi
  109. (2003). Liquid formulation of the biocontrol agent C. sake CPA-1 in isotonic solutions. doi
  110. (1982). Localisation of trehalase in vacuoles and of trehalose in the cytosol of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). doi
  111. (1991). Maintenance of bacteria by freeze drying.
  112. (1995). Manipulation of intracellular glycerol and erythritol enhances germination of conidia at low water availability. doi
  113. (1994). Mechanism of dehydration inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum. doi
  114. (1997). Mechanism of viability loss during fluidized bed drying of baker's yeast. doi
  115. (2000). Metabolic surprises in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during adaptation to saline conditions: questions, some answers and a model. FEMS 188References Microbiol. doi
  116. (1991). Method to enhance growth and sporulation of palletised biocontrol fungi.
  117. (2001). Metscnikowia fructicola, new ascosporic yeast with potential for biocontrol of post-harvest fruit rots. doi
  118. (1992). Micro-plate colourimetric assay for endo-acting cellulose, xylanase, chitinase, 1,3-β-glucanase and amylase extracted from forest soil horizons. doi
  119. (1998). Microbial Biopesticides- The European scene. In: doi
  120. (1983). Microbial control of plant pests and diseases.
  121. (1984). Microbial growth at reduced water activities: some physiochemical properties of compatible solutes. doi
  122. (1976). Microbial water stress. doi
  123. (1996). Mode of action of an isolate of Candida famata in biological control of Penicillium digitatum in orange fruits. doi
  124. (1994). Mode of action of biocontrol agents of post-harvest diseases. In:
  125. (1991). Mode of action of the post-harvest biocontrol yeast, Pichia quilliermondii. I. characterisation of attachment to Botrytis cinerea.
  126. (1992). Morphogenesis and adhesion of Aureobasidium pullulans. doi
  127. (1998). Multiple effects of trehalose on protein folding in vitro and in vivo. doi
  128. (1973). Mycotoxin formation affected by fumigation of wheat.
  129. (1973). Mycotoxin production affected by insticide treatment of wheat.
  130. (1998). Mycotoxin production by Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium species. doi
  131. (1991). Natural abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis of acyclic polyol and trehalose accumulation by several yeast species in response to salt stress. doi
  132. (1997). Nisin enhancement of biocontrol of postharvest diseases of apple with Candida oleophila. doi
  133. (2001). Nutritional enhancement of biocontrol activity of Candida sake (CPA-1) against Penicillium expansum on apples and pears.
  134. (1973). Occurrence of ochratoxin A and citrinin in cereals associated with mycotoxic porcine nephropathy . doi
  135. (2001). Occurrence of Ochratoxin a in Italian Wines. Food Additives and Contaminants, doi
  136. Ochratoxin A accumulation in cultures of Penicillium verrucosum with the antagonistic yeast Pichia anomala and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. doi
  137. (2002). Ochratoxin A in Grapes and Wine. doi
  138. (1996). Ochratoxin A in Table Wine and Grape-Juice: Occurrence and Risk Assessment. Food Additives and Contaminants, doi
  139. (1994). Ochratoxin A production by strains of Aspergillus niger var niger. doi
  140. (1996). Ochratoxin A- Toxicological Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants, WHO Food Additives series 35, doi
  141. (1996). Ochratoxin in Danish cereals 1986-1992 and daily intake by Danish population. doi
  142. (1996). Ochratoxin production by Aspergillus species. doi
  143. (2000). of the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala on interactions between Penicillium roquefortii, Penicillium carneum, and Penicillium paneum in moist grain under restricted air supply. doi
  144. (2003). Optimisation of initial cell concentration enhances freeze drying tolerance of Pseudomonas chlororaphis. doi
  145. (1980). Osmoregulation in yeasts. In: Genetic Engineering of Osmoregulation, doi
  146. (1999). Osmotic and matric potential effects on growth, sclerotia and partitioning of polyols and sugars in colonies and spores of Aspergillus ochraceus. doi
  147. (2000). Osmotic/matric potential affects mycelial growth and endogenous reserves in Agaricus bisporus. Science and Cultivation of Edible Fungi Van Griensven (Ed.).
  148. Outbreak of Pichia anomala infection in the pediatric service of a tertiary-care center in Northern India. doi
  149. (2003). Ovexpression, sretion and antifungal activity of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae chtinase.
  150. (1987). Penicillium verrucosum, Penicillium viridicatum and production of ochratoxin A.
  151. (1997). Phospholipase activity in Cryptococcus neoformans: A new virulence factor? doi
  152. (2001). Physiological Approaches to Improving the Ecological Fitness of Fungal Biocontrol Agents. In: Fungi as Biocontrol Agents. doi
  153. (1992). Physiology of osmotolerance in fungi. doi
  154. (1999). Pichia anomala as a biocontrol agent during storage of high-moisture feed grain under airtight conditions. doi
  155. (1998). Pichia anomala as a biocontrol agent of Penicillium roquefortii in high-moisture wheat, rye, barley, and oats stored under airtight conditions. doi
  156. (2001). Pichia anomala outbreak in a nursery: exogenous source? Pediatrics Infectious Diseases doi
  157. (1997). Plant Pathology 4 th Ed..
  158. (1984). Polyol metabolism in fungi. doi
  159. (2001). Post-harvest biological control of grey mold and blue mold on apple by Cryptococcus albidus (Saito) doi
  160. (1984). Post-harvest biological control of stone fruits brown rot by Bacillus subtilis. doi
  161. (2004). Post-harvest fungal ecology: Impact of fungal growth and mycotoxin accumulation in stored grain. doi
  162. (1995). Post-harvest treatment on Spanish strawberry (FragariaX ananassa Cv. doi
  163. (1982). Potential for biological control of plant diseases on the phylloplane. doi
  164. (1979). Practical applications of entomopathogenic fungi. In:
  165. (1984). Preservation of membranes in anhydrobiotic organisms: the role of trehalose. doi
  166. (1998). Pretreatment of beet molasses to increase pullulan production. doi
  167. (1987). Production of bacterial inoculants by direct fermentation on nutrient-supplemented vermiculite.
  168. (2002). Production of beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase of two biocontrol agents and their possible modes of action. doi
  169. (2001). Production of the biocontrol Pantoea agglomerans strain CPA-2 using commercial products and byproducts. doi
  170. (1999). Production of the fungal biocontrol agent Epicoccum nigrum by solid substrate fermentation: effect of water activity on accumulation of compatible solutes.
  171. (2001). Production of the fungal biocontrol agent Ulocladium atrum by submerged fermentation: accumulation of endogenous reserves and shelflife studies doi
  172. (2001). Production, Stabilisation and Formulation of Fungal Biocontrol Agents. In: Fungi as Biocontrol Agents. doi
  173. (1991). Progress in formulation research for PGPR and biocontrol inoculants. In:
  174. (1985). Proliferation of Talaromyces flavus in soil and survival in alginate pellets. doi
  175. (2003). Protectants used in the cryoprotection of microorganisms. doi
  176. (1994). Purification, characterization and synergistic activity of a glucan 1,3-β-glucosidase and an N-acetyl-β-glucominidase from Trichoderma harzianum. doi
  177. (1996). Reclassification of the Penicillium roquefortii group into three species on the basis of molecular genetic and biochemical profiles. doi
  178. (1998). Regulation of Alcoholic Fermantation doi
  179. (1999). Regulation of fermentative CO2 production buy the food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii. doi
  180. (2000). Regulation of primary carbon metabolism in Kluyveromyces lactis. doi
  181. (1978). Response of xerotolerant and non-xerotolerant yeasts to water stress. doi
  182. (1991). Role of the competitive microbial flora in the radiation-induced enhancement of ochratoxin production by Aspergillus alutaceus var. alutaceus NRRL 3174.
  183. (1999). Sensitivity of Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum to postharvesst citrus fungicides in California. doi
  184. (1977). Solid state fermentation-Part 1. doi
  185. (2000). Solute stresses affect growth patterns, endogenous water potentials and accumulation of sugar and sugar alcohols in cells of the biocontrol agent Candida sake CPA-1. doi
  186. (1975). Spontaneous causes of toxic nephropathy in poultry associated with ochratoxin A. doi
  187. (1995). Spray drying of the dehalogenating bacterium Rhodococcus Sp. doi
  188. (1986). Stabilisation of membranes in anhydrobiotic organisms. In: Membranes, Metabolism and dry organisms. doi
  189. (1987). Stimulation by Hypopichia burtonii and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in irradiated maize and rice grains.
  190. (1985). Survival of bacteria and fungi in relation to water activity and the solvent properties of water in biopolymer gels.
  191. (2002). Survival of Pantoea agglomerans strain CPA-2 in a spray-drying process. doi
  192. (2000). Survival Rate of Microbes after Freeze Drying and Long-Term Storage. doi
  193. (1984). Synonomy of the yeast genera Hansenula and Pichia demonstrated through comparison of deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness. doi
  194. (1999). th edition
  195. The chemical control of post-harvest diseases: deciduous fruits, vegetables and root/tuber crops. doi
  196. (1992). The composition and attributes of C.truncatum spores are altered by the nutritional environment.
  197. (1991). The freeze drying of lactic acid bacteria. A review. doi
  198. (2000). the grey mould disease of the grape-vine be controlled by yeast? doi
  199. (1999). The growth of Micrococcus varians by utilizing sugar cane blackstrap molasses as substrate. doi
  200. (1985). The hydration water and protein with cryoprotectant. In Fundamentals and applications of freeze dried to biological materials, drugs and food stuffs. International Institute of Refrigeration.
  201. (1995). The Physiology of Fungal Nutrition. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge U.K. doi
  202. (1999). Toxic Effects of Mycotoxins in Humans.
  203. (2000). Toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins. doi
  204. (1996). Trehalose accumulation by a basidiomycotinous yeast, Filobasidium floriforme. doi
  205. (1990). Trehalose in yeast, stress protectant rather than reserve carbohydrate. doi
  206. (1990). Trehalose levels and survival ratio of freeze tolerant versus freeze sensitive yeasts.
  207. (2000). Trehalose reserve in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: phenomenon of transport, accumulation and role in cell viability. doi
  208. (1991). Viability and stability of yeast cells and filamentous fungus spores during freeze-drying: effects of protectants and cooling rates. doi
  209. (2004). Viability of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in fermented soymilk after drying, subsequent rehydration and storage. doi
  210. (1991). Volumetric properties of polyols (ethylene glycol, glycerol, meso-erythritol, xylitol and mannitol) in relation to their membrane permeability: group additivity and estimation of the maximum radius of their molecules. doi
  211. (1981). Water and Microbial Stress. doi
  212. (1957). Water relations of food spoilage microorganisms. doi
  213. (1990). Water relations of polyol accumulation by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in continuous culture. doi
  214. (1988). Water stress plating hyoersensitivity of yeasts: protective role of trehalose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. doi
  215. (1975). Xerophilic fungi and the spoilage of food of plant origin. In: Water relations of food. doi
  216. (1995). Yeast cell responses to water potential variations. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.