This thesis addresses corporate approaches to CSR stakeholder engagement in the\ud pharmaceutical industry in the UK and Germany. Its objective is to undertake mainly\ud exploratory qualitative research to investigate how the selected sample manages CSR. The\ud data was primarily accessed and collected from senior executives within major\ud pharmaceutical companies. Multiple research methods were employed to gather rich new\ud empirical evidence which focuses on the CSR practices and perceptions of CSR managers in\ud both countries. To examine how this ¿sensitive¿ sector responds to what could be termed the\ud ¿CSR Challenge¿, a critical realist perspective and six codes were chosen to map the practices\ud and to compare similarities and differences between the two countries. This research\ud contributes to the academic literature in this field by filling significant gaps in an area which\ud was previously under-investigated. Ultimately, the findings are employed to examine a prespecified\ud framework which was originally developed by the author based on secondary data in\ud separate research. Overall, the results inform, re-examine, and improve this recently published\ud framework. The updated explanatory framework which results from the research is the main\ud conceptual contribution of the thesis. It serves as a management tool which includes the\ud contextual factors which influence decision-makers¿ practices and perceptions portrayed as a\ud set of inter-related management steps. This new conceptualisation is designed to be of\ud practical use for decision-makers when managing their stakeholder engagement activities. As\ud a result, this research is essentially applied and normative in nature. In addition, this work\ud presents an original contribution to the literature in its field which should be of interest to\ud academics
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