Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Perfectionism and emotional reactions to perfect and flawed achievements: Satisfaction and pride only when perfect\ud

By Joachim Stoeber and Hongfei Yang


Perfectionists have excessively high standards and thus are prone to experience dissatisfaction and embarrassment. But what if they achieve perfection? The present study investigated in a sample of 194 university students how self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism predicted emotional reactions (satisfaction, dissatisfaction, pride, embarrassment) to imagined situations in which students achieved either perfect or flawed outcomes. Self-oriented perfectionism showed positive correlations with satisfaction and pride after perfect outcomes, and positive correlations with dissatisfaction and embarrassment after flawed outcomes. In contrast, socially prescribed perfectionism showed positive correlations with dissatisfaction after both perfect and flawed outcomes. Moreover, socially prescribed perfectionism moderated the relationship of self-oriented perfectionism with satisfaction and pride after perfect outcomes: Self-oriented perfectionism predicted higher satisfaction and pride only in students with low levels of socially prescribed perfectionism. The findings show that perfectionists high in self-oriented perfectionism, but low in socially prescribed perfectionism may experience more pride and greater satisfaction than nonperfectionists, but only when they achieve perfection

Topics: BF
Year: 2010
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1993). A comparison of two measures of perfectionism. doi
  2. (2008). A study of the moderation effect of positive perfectionism.
  3. (2005). Adaptive and maladaptive aspects of self-oriented versus socially prescribed perfectionism. doi
  4. (1991). An experimental analysis of perfectionism and dissatisfaction. doi
  5. (1999). Chinese Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale: A validation and prediction of self-esteem and psychological distress. doi
  6. (1973). Cross-cultural research methods. doi
  7. (2008). Facets of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism and feelings of pride, shame, and guilt following success and failure. doi
  8. (1996). Moral affect and cognitive processes: Differentiating shame from guilt among men and women. doi
  9. (2004). Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS): Technical manual. doi
  10. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. doi
  11. (2002). Perfectionism and maladjustment: An overview of theoretical, definitional, and treatment issues. In doi
  12. (2007). Perfectionism and the experience of pride, shame, and guilt: Comparing healthy perfectionists, unhealthy perfectionists, and nonperfectionists. doi
  13. (2002). Perfectionism and the self-conscious emotions: Shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride. In doi
  14. (2007). Perfectionism in Chinese university students from Taiwan: A study of psychological well-being and achievement motivation. doi
  15. (1991). Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: Conceptualization, assessment, and association with psychopathology. doi
  16. (2007). Perfectionism, academic burnout and engagement among Chinese college students: A structural equation modeling analysis. doi
  17. (2004). Perfectionism, cognition, and affect in response to performance failure vs. success. doi
  18. (2009). Perfectionism, fear of failure, and affective responses to success and failure: The central role of fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment.
  19. (2006). Positive conceptions of perfectionism: Approaches, evidence, challenges. doi
  20. (2000). Procrastination: A means of avoiding shame or guilt?
  21. (1978). Psychodynamics of normal and neurotic perfectionism.
  22. (1967). Psychometric theory. doi
  23. (2006). Scenarios: Achieving perfect versus flawed outcomes.
  24. (2001). Simulation, scenarios, and emotional appraisal: Testing the convergence of real and imagined reactions to emotional stimuli. doi
  25. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. doi
  26. (2002). The nature and assessment of perfectionism: A critical analysis. In doi
  27. (1985). The quest for perfection: Avoiding guilt or avoiding shame? doi
  28. (2001). The revised Almost Perfect Scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and doi
  29. (2008). The test and revision of Hewitt Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale for 523 Chinese college students.
  30. (2008). The test and revision of Hewitt Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale for 529 Chinese college students.
  31. (2008). The test and revision of Hewitt Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale for Chinese college students.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.