noChronic wounds often result from prolonged inflammation involving excessive polymorphonuclear leukocyte activity. Studies show that the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids found in fish oils generate bioactive lipid mediators that reduce inflammation and polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment in numerous inflammatory disease models. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that boosting plasma levels of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids with oral supplementation would alter lipid mediator levels in acute wound microenvironments and reduce polymorphonuclear leukocyte levels. Eighteen individuals were randomized to 28 days of either eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic acid supplementation (Active Group) or placebo. After 28 days the Active Group had significantly higher plasma levels of eicosapentaenoic (p<0.001) and docosahexaenoic acid (p<0.001) than the Placebo Group and significantly lower wound fluid levels of two 15-lipoxygenase products of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, [9- hydroxyoctadecadienoic (HODE) acid (p = 0.033) and15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (HETrE) \ud (p = 0.006)], at 24 hours post wounding. The Active Group also had lower mean levels of myeloperoxidase, a leukocyte marker, at 12 hours and significantly more re-epithelialization on Day 5 post wounding. We suggest that lipid mediator profiles can be manipulated by altering polyunsaturated fatty acid intake to create a wound microenvironment more conducive to healing
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