NoThe reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process to make fresh water from seawater has been studied here. First, a model for the process is developed. Sensitivity of different operating parameters (feed flow rate, feed pressure) and design parameters (internal diameter, total number of tubes) on the recovery ratio are studied via repetitive simulation. Finally, an optimisation framework for the process is developed so as to maximize the recovery ratio or a profit function using different energy recovery devices, subjectto general constraints. The optimal operating parameters (feed flow rate, feed pressure) and design parameters (internal diameter, total number of tubes) are determined by solving the optimisation problem using an efficient successive quadratic programming (SQP) based method. The optimal values for the decision variables depend on the constraints introduced, and are also sensitive to variations in water and energy prices, as well as feed concentration. The use ofthe emerging energy recovery devices is widely justified, reporting much higher reductions in operating costs than the traditional technology used for this purpose. Using a pressure exchanger device, it is possible to reduce energy consumption by up to 50%
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