Location of Repository

Human deciduous mandibular molar incremental enamel development.

By Patrick Mahoney


Quantitative studies of incremental markings retained within human enamel have reconstructed the duration and rate (crown and cusp formation times, initiation and completion, daily enamel secretion rates) of permanent tooth development. This approach has provided one way of estimating human age-at-death, and facilitated comparative dental studies of primate evolution. Similar applications from deciduous enamel are inhibited because developmental reconstructions from incremental markings for these teeth are less frequently reported in the literature. This study quantified the duration and rate of enamel development for mesial (protoconid, metaconid) and distal cusps (hypoconid, entoconid) for first (dm1) and second (dm2) deciduous mandibular molars from an archaeological sample of modern human juveniles. Crown formation time can be calculated from the dm1 protoconid because growth initiates and completes in this cusp, and from the dm2 protoconid combined with the final period of hypoconid growth. The dm1 postnatal crown formation time included the time taken for the tubercle of Zuckerkandl to develop, and differed slightly compared to radiographic methods. The majority of dm1 protoconid cuspal (occlusal region) enamel formed before birth. The dm2 entoconid enamel formed mainly after birth. Birth reduced daily enamel secretion rates, changed the visibility of incremental markings, and disrupted enamel growth for 3 to 8 days. Findings presented here can contribute to age-at-death estimates for human infants aged 13-postnatal months or less, and should facilitate comparisons of primate deciduous incremental enamel development in an evolutionary context. Regression equations are included so that cuspal formation time can be estimated from enamel thickness

Topics: GN
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
Year: 2011
OAI identifier: oai:kar.kent.ac.uk:27494

Suggested articles



  1. (1964). A chronological study on the crown formation of the human deciduous dentition. Bull Tokyo Med Dent Univ 11:55–76.
  2. (1998). A comparative study of cross striation spacings in cuspal enamel and of four methods of estimating the time taken to grow molar cuspal enamel in Pan, Pongo and Homo. doi
  3. (2006). A faithful record of stressful life events preserved in the dental developmental record of a juvenile gorilla. doi
  4. (1998). A histological reconstruction of dental development in the common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes. doi
  5. (1961). A longitudinal study of tooth formation and root resorption.
  6. (1973). A new system of dental age assessment.
  7. (1974). A review of the chronology of eruption of deciduous teeth.
  8. (1990). An introduction to human evolutionary anatomy. doi
  9. (1959). Anatomical studies on the position, the arrangement and the calcification of the milk tooth germs in the Japanese embryo. Sika Gakujo 59:997–1033.
  10. (1990). Anatomy of cusps of posterior teeth and their fracture potential. doi
  11. Bemerkungen uber den inneren Bauder Za ¨hne, mit besonderer Rucksicht auf den im Zahnknochen vorkommenden Ro ¨hrenbau.
  12. Bemerkungen uber den inneren Bauder Za¨hne, mit besonderer Rucksicht auf den im Zahnknochen vorkommenden Ro¨hrenbau.
  13. (1964). Calcification of mandibular second primary molars in relation to age.
  14. (1968). Calcification of the deciduous molars in baboons (Papio anubis) and other primates. doi
  15. (1992). Correlative growth of upper and lower tooth germs in the human foetus. Ann Zool Fennici 28:261–272.
  16. (1963). Crown development in human deciduous molar teeth. Arch Oral Biol 8:523–540. doi
  17. (2009). Deciduous tooth growth in an Ancient Greek infant cemetery. In: Koppe doi
  18. (1933). Development of the human jaws and surrounding structures from birth to age fifteen.
  19. (2003). Development of the tooth and its supporting tissues.
  20. (1959). Differential calcification rates in the human primary dentition. Arch Oral Biol 1:133–144. doi
  21. (1967). Early development of the deciduous molar crown pattern in man. doi
  22. (1986). Enamel apposition rate and the prism periodicity in human teeth. doi
  23. (1991). Enamel incremental periodicity in the pigtailed macaque: a polychrome fluorescent labelling study of dental hard tissues. doi
  24. (2000). Enamel thickness and the helicoidal wear plane in modern human mandibular molars. Arch Oral Biol 45:401–409. doi
  25. (2005). Enamel thickness of deciduous and permanent molars in modern Homo sapiens. doi
  26. (2003). Enamel thickness, microstructure and development in Afropithecus turkanensis. doi
  27. (2003). Enamel: composition, formation, and structure.
  28. (1963). Estimation of age at death from young human skeletal remains from incremental lines in dental enamel. London: Third International Meeting in Forensic Immunology, Medicine, Pathology and Toxicology.
  29. (2000). Evaluating the periodicity of incremental structures in dental enamel as a means of studying growth in children from past human populations.
  30. (1933). Fine contour lines of enamel milk teeth. Dent Res 53:170.
  31. (1963). Formation and resorption of three deciduous teeth in children. doi
  32. (1987). Growth layers and incremental markings in hard tissues: a review of the literature and some preliminary 212 P. doi
  33. (1968). Growth of the human second lower deciduous molar. doi
  34. (1998). Growth tracks in dental enamel. doi
  35. (2006). Health of infants in an Imperial Roman skeletal sample: perspective from dental microstructure. doi
  36. (1998). Histological reconstruction of dental development in four individuals from a Medieval site in Picardie, doi
  37. (1998). Histological reconstruction of dental development in four individuals from a Medieval site in Picardie, France. doi
  38. (1991). Histological study on the chronology of the developing dentition in gorilla and orangutan. doi
  39. (1939). Horoshitsu ni mirareru Seicho-sen noshuki. ‘‘The periodicity of growth lines seen in enamel.’’
  40. (2006). How Neanderthal molar teeth grew. doi
  41. (2005). Identification of historical human skeletal remains: a case study using skeletal and dental age, history and DNA. doi
  42. (1993). Increasing human tooth length between birth and 5.4 years. doi
  43. (2004). Incremental development of primate dental enamel.
  44. (2008). Intraspecific variation in M1 enamel development in modern humans: implications for human evolution. doi
  45. (1999). Large scale histological assessment of deciduous crown formation.
  46. (1971). Microscopy of the neonatal line in developing human enamel. doi
  47. (2007). Molar crown formation in the late Miocene Asian hominoids, Sivapithecus parvada and Sivapithecus sivalensis. doi
  48. (1936). Neonatal line in enamel and dentin of human deciduous teeth and first permanent molar.
  49. (2008). Neonatal lines in the enamel of primary teeth—a morphological and scanning electron microscopic investigation. doi
  50. (2007). New perspectives on chimpanzee and human dental development.
  51. (1977). On the Hominid masticatory complex: biomechanical and evolutionary perspective. doi
  52. (1991). On thick and thin enamel in hominoids. doi
  53. (2003). Preliminary investigation of dental microstructure in the Yuanmou hominoid (Lufengpithecus hudienensis). doi
  54. (2003). Preliminary investigation of dental microstructure in the Yuanmou hominoid (Lufengpithecus hudienensis). Yunnan Province, doi
  55. (1971). Primary and permanent tooth development. doi
  56. (1998). Radiographic and histological methodologies in estimating the chronology of crown development in modern humans and great apes: a review, with some applications for studies on juvenile hominids. doi
  57. (1937). Rate of apposition of enamel and dentin, measured by the effect of acute fluorosis. doi
  58. (2009). Rates of enamel formation in human deciduous teeth. In: Koppe doi
  59. (1978). Scanning electron microscopy of the neonatal line in human enamel. Arch Oral Biol 23:45–50. 214 P. doi
  60. (2004). SEM observations of Retzius lines and prism cross-striations in human dental enamel after different acid etching regimes. Arch Oral Biol 49:45–52. doi
  61. (1990). Structural characteristics of staircase-type Retzius lines in human dental enamel analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Anat Rec 226:135–146. doi
  62. (2005). Test of histological methods of determining chronology of accentuated striae in deciduous teeth. doi
  63. (2006). The accuracy of histological assessments of dental development and age at death. doi
  64. (1941). The development of the human dentition.
  65. (2009). The developmental clock of dental enamel: a test for the periodicity of prism crossstriations in modern humans and an evaluation of the most likely sources of error in histological studies of this kind. doi
  66. (1965). The human dentition before birth. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger. doi
  67. (2010). Two dimensional patterns of human enamel thickness on deciduous (dm1, dm2) and permanent first (M1) mandibular molars. Arch Oral Biol 55:115–126. doi
  68. (1998). Utilization of periodic markings in enamel to obtain information on tooth growth. doi
  69. (2004). Variation in crown and root formation and eruption of human deciduous teeth. doi
  70. (2006). Variation in modern human enamel formation times. doi
  71. (1984). Variations in growth of the enamel crown in human teeth and a possible relationship between growth and enamel structure. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.