In vitro, in vivo, and in silico analyses of the antitumor activity of 2-(4-amino-3-methylphenyl)-5-fluorobenzothiazoles


NoPhortress is a novel, potent, and selective experimental antitumor agent. Its mechanism of action involves induction of CYP1A1-catalyzed biotransformation of 2-(4-amino-3-methylphenyl)-5-fluorobenzothiazole (5F 203) to generate electrophilic species, which covalently bind to DNA, exacting lethal damage to sensitive tumor cells, in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we investigate the effects of DNA adduct formation on cellular DNA integrity and progression through cell cycle and examine whether a relevant pharmacodynamic end point may be exploited to probe the clinical mechanism of action of Phortress and predict tumor response. Single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) was applied to quantify DNA damage and cell cycle analyses conducted upon 5F 203 treatment of benzothiazole-sensitive MCF-7 and inherently resistant MDA-MB-435 breast carcinoma cells. Following treatment of xenograft-bearing mice and mice possessing hollow fiber implants containing MCF-7 or MDA-MB-435 cells with Phortress (20 mg/kg, i.p., 24 hours), tumor cells and xenografts were recovered for analyses by SCGE. Dose- and time-dependent DNA single and double strand breaks occurred exclusively in sensitive cells following treatment with 5F 203 in vitro (10 nmol/L¿10 ¿mol/L; 24¿72 hours). In vivo, Phortress-sensitive and Phortress-resistant tumor cells were distinct; moreover, DNA damage in xenografts, following treatment of mice with Phortress, could be determined. Interrogation of the mechanism of action of 5F 203 in silico by self-organizing map-based cluster analyses revealed modulation of phosphatases and kinases associated with cell cycle regulation, corroborating observations of selective cell cycle perturbation by 5F 203 in sensitive cells. By conducting SCGE, tumor sensitivity to Phortress, an agent currently undergoing clinical evaluation, may be determined

Similar works

Full text


Bradford Scholars

Full text is not available

This paper was published in Bradford Scholars.

Having an issue?

Is data on this page outdated, violates copyrights or anything else? Report the problem now and we will take corresponding actions after reviewing your request.