NoThis work evaluated the in vitro transdermal iontophoretic delivery of tritiated estradiol from ultradeformable liposomes compared with saturated aqueous solution (control). Effects of current density and application time on tritium exchange with water were also determined. Penetration studies used three Protocols. Protocol I involved occluded passive steady state estradiol penetration from ultradeformable liposomes and control. The effect of current densities on drug penetration rates was also assessed (Protocol II). In Protocol III, three consecutive stages of drug penetration (first passive, iontophoresis and second passive) through the same human epidermal membranes were monitored. Such an experimental design investigated the possible effect of high current density (0.8 mA/cm2) on skin integrity. The tritium exchange study showed that extent of exchange correlated well with current density and time of application, with some shielding of estradiol by the liposomal structure. Liposomes enhanced estradiol passive penetration after occlusion. Protocol II showed that estradiol flux increased linearly with current density, although being delivered against electroosmotic flow. In Protocol III, reduction in flux of the second passive stage to near that of the first reflected a reversibility of the structural changes induced in skin by current
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