[[abstract]]This research intends to explore the development and change of the civil-military relations in the process the political democratization of the Republic of China (ROC), in order to have an insight of the ROC Armed Forces’ dilemma on civil-military relations. Mainly through methods of document study, historical research and survey research, and based on both qualitative and quantitative analysis, the theme of this research is to analysis the change of the nature and interactive mode of ROC’s civil-military relations. The subject of this research is national defense system. The current legal system and practice concerning the civil-military relations will be addressed first. This research will continue to expound and analysis the civilian control of military in the ROC’s national defense system through the lens of history and statistical investigation, in order to have a clear picture of the characteristics, and the gap between the idea and practice of the implementation of civil control of the military. This research will also explore the reasons causing lack of theoretical awareness and the malimplementation of the policy of civilian control of military through the analysis of three main ideologies that demonstrate the deep meanings of the civil control of military, namely: the authority over national defense decision and the civil-military relations, national defense system and the impact of organization culture, and the cultivation and utilization of civilian and military, in order to provide a point of reference for the future national defense policy makers. This research finds that influenced by the political democratization, political party alternation and legalization of national defense system, the development of civil-military relations in the ROC are moving towards nationalization of the military, civilian control of the military and military professionalization. This research concludes that: 1) the military is a noble and a highly-professional profession; 2) the cause of the civil-military tension is caused by the cultural and awareness gap; 3) the ROC Armed Forces’ observation of the principle of the nationalization of the military and military neutrality in politics is recognized; 4) the reason that the principle of civilian control of military is not fully implemented is the practical needs need to be met; 5) contradictories between civil service systems within the national defense organization; and 6) professional military education (PME) is the foundation of a harmony civil-military relation. Based on the purpose of research, the results of the questionnaires with regards to how to implement and improve the principle of civilian control of the military, and the difficulties encountered during the research process, suggestions on policy derived from this research are: 1) a law concerning the servicemen on active duty transferring to high-ranking civilian positions should be stipulated; 2) only the man or woman who possesses the military strategy leadership capabilities and is familiar with national defense matters is qualified to be appointed as the Minister of National Defense; 3) only highly-professional-military-educated male or female civilian officials are qualified to serve in the Ministry of National Defense; 4) the National Defense University should establish an education and training system to address national defense matters and PME, for the purpose of facilitating a civil service system for national defense; 5) a civil service system for national defense should be established to continue civil service and increase positions for civil officials in the in the national defense system; and 6) a professional and neutral “Office for National Defense Affairs Research” should be established under the Legislative Yuan’s Foreign and National Defense Committee .
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