[[abstract]]The Fifth Symphony （1901-1902） is the first symphony of the twentieth century composed by Gustav Mahler（1860-1911）. In addition, it is Mahler’s respective work from Wunderhorn Period to Ruckert Period. From this work, the composer abandoned the program. This symphony didn’t contain the voice. The relation between symphonies and songs has made slight changes. As for all aspects, the music is different from that before, including excellent counterpoint writing skills and clear polyphony context. Besides, Mahler met Alma, got married to her and began his new life. A series of events not only represent the particular context of The Fifth Symphony, but also reveal the important changes in Mahler’s writing career. In order to realize the content of the symphony and the thoughts of the composer, here are five chapters in this thesis. Chapter One is Introduction. Chapter Two inquires about the creation background of the symphony. Based on the work’s context, these opinions are discussed as the followings: (1) Through the inquiry about the life experiences of Mahler, we realize how the environments, the psychological factors, and the concept of life and death influence the work. (2) When Mahler abandoned the program in The Fifth Symphony, what did he think about program music and abstract music? (3) The first performance and revisions of The Fifth Symphony. Chapter Three discusses the use of the songs’ materials in this symphony, so as to realize the shifts of songs’ materials in the symphony. Chapter Four focuses on the masterpiece itself, including the structure, the analyses of themes and the writing methods. Here are deep discussions on some important concerns in this symphony’s every movement as well. Chapter Five is the conclusion, which represents the essential writing method in The Fifth Symphony and the important role of The Fifth Symphony in Mahler’s writing career.