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Effect of nutrition education intervention on the body composition and nutritional biomarkers of exercising school children

By 林容殿 and Rang-Dian Lin

Abstract

[[abstract]]The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of nutrition education intervention on the body composition, dietary behavior and health-related physical fitness, as well as the fasting plasma and urinary biomarkers of exercising school children. Ninety-six school children (boys, N=55, BMI≧20.3kg/m2 [grade 4, n=24; grade 5, n=31]; girls, N=41, BMI ≧20.1kg/m2 [grade 4, n=15; grade 5, n=26]) voluntarily participated in exercise and nutrition education intervention study for 12 weeks. Based on body fat percentage and gender difference, school children were divided into six groups: school boys without nutrition education and exercise intervention (NNNM, n=18, 10.1±0.8 years; control boys), school girls without nutrition education and exercise intervention (NNNF, n=14, 9.9±0.7 years; control girls), exercising school boys without nutrition education intervention (NNEM, n=17, 10.2±0.7 years), exercising school girls without nutrition education intervention (NNEF, n=13, 10.2±0.6 years), exercising school boys with nutrition education intervention (YNEM, n=20, 10.0±0.8 years), and exercising school girls with nutrition education intervention (YNEF, n=14, 10.1±0.6 years). The prescribed 12-week exercise program was: 3 exercise sessions/week, and 40 min/session. The prescribed 12-week nutrition education program was: 2 courses/week, and 40 min/course. Before and after intervention, data of body composition, dietary and exercise habits questionnaire, health-related physical fitness (sit-and-reach, 1min curl-ups, standing long jump, and 800m run/walk), and fasting plasma and urinary biomarkers were assessed for all subjects except the NNNM and NNNF groups whose plasma and urinary samples were not collected. Plasma samples were analyzed for the concentrations of glutamine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, f-tryptophan, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and glucose. Urinary samples were analyzed for the concentrations of hydroxyproline, 3-methylhistidine, and creatinine, as well as the pH value. After intervention, the body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, body fat, and body fat percentage decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in YNEM group, but height, fat free mass, and muscle mass percentage increased significantly (p < 0.05). As compared with NNNM group, the decreases in triceps skinfold thickness, body fat, and body fat percentage of YNEM group reached the significant levels. The increases in the weight of YNEM group were significantly smaller (p < 0.05) than those of NNNM group, but the increases in the fat free mass percentage and muscle mass percentage were significantly larger (p < 0.05) than those of NNNM group. The height, body weight, fat free mass, bone mass, total body water, and muscle mass increased significantly (p < 0.001) in YNEF group. The increase in height of NNEF group was significantly smaller (p < 0.05) than that of NNNF group, but the increase in the waist to hip ratio was significantly larger (p < 0.05) than that of NNNF group. After intervention, egg, bean, fish, and meat consumption, vegetable consumption, and protein density consumed of NNEM group decreased significantly (p < 0.05); the frequency of snack consumption of NNEM group decreased significantly (p < 0.05); the frequency of soft drink consumption of NNNF group increased significantly (p < 0.05). After study, the exercise time (min/session) of YNEM group decreased significantly (p < 0.05), the exercise duration (hr/week) of NNNF group decreased significantly (p < 0.05). The standing long jump distance of all groups increased significantly (p < 0.05) except YNEF group. After intervention, the fasting plasma triacylglycerols of YNEM group decreased significantly (p < 0.05), and the fasting plasma cholesterol of YNEF group increased significantly (p < 0.05). The decrease in the fasting plasma triacylglycerols of YNEM group was significantly larger (p < 0.05) than that of NNEM group. In general, there was no significant difference in the fasting plasma amino acid concentrations of all the exercise groups before and after intervention. However, the urinary 3-methylhistidine concentration of YNEM group increased significantly (p < 0.0001) after intervention. The homeostasis of the school children was not affected by the design of the study. Based on the aforementioned results, the combined effects of nutrition education and exercise training enhanced the body composition of school boys, along with the fasting plasma triacylglycerols; but, there was no influence on the dietary intake and health-related physical fitness of the group. The combined effects of nutrition education and exercise training, however, did not improve the body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations of the school girls. The possible mechanism could be due to the influence of estrogen in those school girls who are beginning their puberty.

Topics: 過重學童;營養教育;運動訓練;身體組成;飲食調查;營養代謝指標, overweight children;nutrition education;exercise training;body composition;dietary survey;nutritional biomarkers, [[classification]]18
Year: 2011
OAI identifier: oai:ir.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:309250000Q/72624
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