[[abstract]]Dryopteris subgenus Nephrocystis was long considered to be taxonomically difficult because of very close interspecific similarity in morphology. In this study, the subgenus Nephrocystis is taxonomically revised based on morphological, palynological, geographical, ecological and molecular studies. Morphological characters including scales, fonds and spores were examined. Spore number per sporangium was also counted to infer reproductive mode.Furthermore, the sequences of two cpDNA fragments (trnL UAA (5’-Exon)-trnF, rps4-trnS) were used as molecular marker to reconstruct phylogenetic tree. According to morphological characters, 5 species are recognized in this subgenus. Both morphological and molecular evidences support that D. yoroii, which status was not clear previously, should be included in this subgenus. D. cacaina and D. melanocarpa, previously treated as synonym of D. sparsa, are recognized as distinct species here. The phylogenetic tree shows that D. melanocarpa and D. subexaltata formed independent clade respectively with high bootstrap value, and both are grouped into D. sparsa clade. Based on phylogenetic tree reconstructed by molecular data, D. melanocarpa and D. subexaltata were inferred to be originated from D. sparsa.