[[abstract]]The main purpose of this thesis is to explore the environmental education of ethnic tribes. Beginning from reflecting the science-based and problem-solving-oriented culture of mainstream EE, I point out that's why some minor groups' subjectivity are marginalized. In brief, EE is concerned about the relationship between society and environments, and seeking better direction through educational processes. To explore the EE of tribes, we must look into the relationship between tribal society and their environments. Taking the development of Cinsbu-Smangus under Maqaw movement as case study with participatory observation methodology, the study analysis it with three questions: 1.At the social movement scale, why and how the issue of tribal development become visible? 2.What are the meanings to participate in the Maqaw movement in tribe's history? 3.How to realize the vision brought by this movement in tribes practically? The removal of ancient cypress trees in Chi-lan area has initiate debates of different environmental values hold by different groups, such as NGOs, forestry authority, and academic groups. Among the debates, Indigenous movement activists use “Maqaw forest” as resistant discourse and thus reveal the importance of the environmental rights and views of tribes. Then this movement turns into a new (Ma1aw) national park movement, which advocates the implement of co-management regime between tribes and the state as a decolonization process. There are many obstacles left in the scenario that tribes are facing. The first is how to make the consensus within Atayal tribes around the proposed national park for constructing a self-governing regime. Second, to build up the capacity of tribes to manage resources is a key effort of tribes to have equal rights and power while co-operating with the state management institution based on modern sciences. Cinsbu and Smagus with a concern of tribal sustainable development are the most active tribes participating in the Maqaw movement. In the age of conservation, environmental discourses are used by indigenous people whose tradition has a close and harmony relationship between nature as a strategy to rebuild traditional culture and an alternative development of autonomy. The participation in Maqaw movement is based on economic reasons. Yet despite the higher autonomy on the resources, having relative more traditional culture and the accumulative efforts of community-building, the participation is impossible. Thus, taking autonomous resource management as a direction, the empowerment of tribes in political, cultural and economic aspects becomes an important element of tribal EE. In the development process of tribe, eco-tourism is becoming a new direction which bring the traditional culture a chance of revival through the combination with modern science. The training course of environmental interpreters is part of the EE of tribes, and is the basis as a EE for the tourist. What comes with is the risk of commodification of culture. Another challenge is to face the heterogeneity and uneven development within tribe. Lack of public and even communication regime is a main obstacle towards a autonomous resources management of tribe. Constructing a public media and a regime of equal dialogue may be efforts worth doing. Last, this thesis concludes that EE of tribes should base on the subjectivity of tribes with a close connection with their development process. The EE in the tribes need to combine modern ecological sciences and traditional ecological knowledge and wisdom, no matter in aspects of educational goal, content and process. Obtaining practical knowledge through learning-by-doing is the basic characteristic of tribal education.
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