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[[alternative]]The Study of Analyzing the Ethnic Songs in the Elementary Music Textbooks

By [[author]]康瓊文, [[author]]Kang Chung-Wen, 康瓊文 and Kang Chung-Wen

Abstract

[[abstract]]The purpose of this research is to understand the contents of the songs in the music textbooks, which depends on different curriculum standards in 1952, 1962, 1968, 1975 and 1993 during the periods of the abolition of martial law. The research objects comprise the review textbooks printed in 1952 and in 1962, the national textbooks printed in 1968 and in 1975, and the versions of unofficial review textbooks after the time of the abolition of martial law-- Knsh textbooks, Ren-Lin textbooks, Hanlin textbooks, and Nani textbooks(volume 1 - 8). The research categories include the singing songs and the appreciating songs . The main purpose of this research is to explore the distribution and the contents of different ethnic songs , and to discern the difference in the textbooks of different periods . Then we can survey the factors that effect the choosing and the words of songs in textbooks, and see if there is any prejudice in textbooks from the angle of multicultural education. For the part of the research method, the research used the qualitative and quantitative ways, the "Table of the origination of the songs categories" ,"Table of the words of the songs categories" ,"Table of the words of the songs categories" ,"Table of the words of the ethnic singing songs and appreciating songs categories", to analyze the contents of the textbooks and to interview textbook editors. By this way, we also can obtain the source of each data. According to the data and results, we can make some conclusions: Before the time of the abolition of martial law, the songs from Taiwan were almost original writing ones. In order to raise the sense of identifying with the Mainland China, the songs from the Mainland China were more than those from Taiwan, but the condition changed in 1975. The singing songs from foreign countries were focus on those from Europe and American. In the words of singing songs, the textbooks in different ages reflect the needs of times and they also have much to improve. Besides, in the words of singing songs and appreciating songs of different ethnic nations, they leant toward the "working categories" of the "ethnic cultural categories". After the time of the abolition of the martial law, in order to conform to the regulations of curriculum standards in choosing the singing songs, the domestic songs are more than foreign ones. The choosing songs from Taiwan were more than those from the Mainland China in Knsh textbooks and Nani textbooks, but Ren-Lin textbooks and Hanlin textbooks were in the opposite condition. In choosing the singing songs, the multicultural ones and add to the songs from Asian, Africa, Australia. In the words of singing songs and appreciating songs of different ethnic nations, the description of different ethnic nations was more vivid in quality and quantity after the time of the abolition of martial law. About the comparison of the characteristics in different ethnic songs between the periods before and after the abolition of martial law. 1.The advantages of each ethnic songs in textbooks were literary, and educative before the time of the abolition of martial law, but after the time of abolition of martial law, they became interesting , native, and educative. 2.The defects of each ethnic songs before the time of the abolition of martial law are as follows: "Ethnocentrism"-- European and American music were the center of the world music. "Invisibility"-- Because of some political reasons, the ideology of the big China and the educators' subjective judgments led to the lack of Taiwanese songs. "Imbalance"-- It was mainly shown in the difficulties of collecting songbooks and the limit of curriculum standards in musical rhythms and notes. "Distortions"-- It is mainly shown in inventing a fake image that each ethnic nations can get along together peacefully. "The nations identity"--It is mainly shown in "the national symbols", "patriotic sentiment", "the political model", "the feelings of hostility". 3.The defects of each ethnic songs after the time of the abolition of martial law are as follows: "Ethnocentrism of Hans"-- Using the factor of the population as the consideration of song arrangements, the aboriginal songs and the Hakka songs were often arranged in the part of the supplementary songs, and they easily became the style of additional curriculums. "Stereotype"-- It was mainly shown in describing these ethnic nations by pre-fixing impression and in doing value judgments to the ethnic nations in the Hans' position. "Fragmentation"--The rate of the songs in Roman Spelling was low, in order to avoid the mistakes of using Roman Spelling and lead to the situation that cannot pass the examination. The words of songs were represented in Roman Spelling, but not in clear explanations. "Imbalance"-- It was mainly shown in the problems in song arrangements, the difficulties of collecting songbooks and the limit of curriculum standards in musical rhythms and notes. 4.By way of the analysis of interview data from the textbook editors, we knew that the prejudice were caused by editorial limitation, the regulation of curriculum standards, worrying about the review and approval problem, the thinking of Ethnocentrism, and the myth of the population proportion. According to what was mentioned above, I try to offer some suggestions.

Topics: 音樂教科書, 族群歌曲, 多元文化教育, music textbook, ethnic songs, multicultural education, [[classification]]12
Year: 2010
OAI identifier: oai:ir.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:309250000Q/12925
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