[[abstract]]The purposes of this study are to：(1)modify Self-Description Questionnaire-I(SDQ-I) to make it suitable for measuring the self-concept of primary school children in Taiwan；(2)verify the relevance of Shavelson's "multifaceted, hierarchical model of self-concept" with the self-concept development status of primary school children in Taiwan; (3)analyze and compare the structures of Self-Description Questionnaire-I response factor between boys and girls and between younger and senior grade children；(4)design courses to improve children's self-concept and study the impact of these courses to the different aspects of children's self-concept. In order to accomplish these purposes, the study was divided into two major parts. Part I covers the test and study of "multifaceted, hierarchical model of self-concept" and the analysis of equivalence in self-concept factor structure among different attribute groups. First, the Self-Description Questionnaire-I was modified with the agreement from Marsh to suit the primary school children in Taiwan. Sample target was from Taipei municipal school children from grade 3 to grade 6 and total 542 children filled the Self-Description Questionnaires. Data were analyzed by Statistics Software Package Lisrel 8.3 and Prelis 2.30 . The results of part I demonstrated：(1)The success of the modified Self-Description Questionnaire. The score of seven aspects of self-concept and total score could be obtained from the test with good reliability and efficiency. (2)The results of confirmatory analysis supported "multifaceted, hierarchical model of self-concept". However, the non-academic self-concept and academic self-concept was not proved by the study. (3)There were obvious differences between boys and girls and between younger and senior grade children in the structures of Self-Description Questionnaire response factor. Part II was aimed to examine the impact of self-concept improvement courses to the different aspects of children's self-concept. The self-concept improvement course was designed based on Marsh's self-concept structure, adopted social skills training, attribution theory, information-processing theory and reading compression theory, etc. Sample target was 64 grade 5 children with low self-concept from Taipei municipal Li-Shan primary school. Selected children was randomly assign to two groups, experimental group and control group. Courses were conducted once a week, 40 minutes every time by small group and total 30 sessions were delivered. Using Self-Description Questionnaire-I as measurement tool and analyzed the impact of self-concept improvement course to the overall self-concept and the seven different aspects of children's self-concept. The results of part II showed the self-concept improvement course：(1)had positive and continuing impact in improving the self-concept；(2) improved the self-concept in Chinese language course；(3) had impact in maintaining the parent-children relationship self-concept comparing with control group；(4)had no improvement in other aspects. This study provides several considerations in practice and research areas based on this research results and findings for better constructing a learning environment in improving self-concept and suggestions for further researches.
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