[[abstract]]The purposes of this study were to examine the changes and traits of literacy ability of students with word recognition difficulties (RD in short)、handwriting difficulties (HD in short) and literacy difficulties (LD in short), and to analyze the relationship between their cognitive components, word recognition and handwriting. The sample of this study included 37 second or third graders. All students with normal IQ were divided into four groups, on the basis of the result of the Basic Literacy Test. The four groups were normal students (NS in short), RD, HD and LD. All the participants were measured their cognitive abilities included attention, working memory, sequential memory, Zhu-Yin-Fu-Hao recognition, phoneme blending, radical recognition, and mental lexicon. The main findings of this research were stated as follows: 1. The literacy ability traits of each subtype: RD group was with normal character-copy, but poor word recognition performances, and the performances of character- writing were influenced by word recognition in the group. HD group was with poor character-copy, but normal word recognition, and the character- writing was affected by character-copy. LD group was with poor word recognition and handwriting, so their literacy abilities were significantly poor. 2. The relationship between word recognition and handwriting: Besides composition, Chinese handwriting was defined to include character-copy and character-writing. Character-copy could affect character-writing performances, on the other hand, character-writing could also affect character-copy productions. Besides, character-copy could not be affected by word recognition, character-copy could not affect word recognition either. 3. The relationship between literacy and cognitive abilities: (1) The relationship between word recognition and cognitive abilities: The phoneme blending was correlated with word recognition in RD, HD and LD group. Furthermore, in HD group, word recognition was also correlated with working memory and sequential memory. (2) The relationship between handwriting and cognitive abilities: The relationship between writing and cognitive abilities was not significant in this study. But according to the case analysis and the inferences from reference discussion, the poor character-copy performances of low handwriting group might be related to the working memory, visual-motor integration and attention. According the aforementioned findings, the limitations of this study, and the recommendations to research and practical implementations were made.
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