[[abstract]]THE EFFECTS OF LEARNING HIERARCHIES AND PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES ON THE ADDITION WORD PROBLEMS FOR THE MILDLY RETARDED STUDENTS FROM THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS Min-Huey Lin Abstract The purposes of this study were as follows : 1) to study the learning hierarchies of the addition word problems, 2)to study the influence of the learning hierarchies on the abilities in solving the addition word problems from mildly retarded students’ , 3) to study the influence of the problem-solving strategies from the same group. This study comprised three researches. The research 1. was designed to find out the learning hierarchies of addition word problems. The subjects of the study were 200 students from third and sixth grades students in elementary schools. The students had to answer the addition word problems in different context of language knowledge. The word problems used in this study included the patterns of change, combine, compare, and equalicy problems. The percentage and rate of correct responses in addition word problems were used as the indexes of learning hierarchies. The main finding of this research was that the patterns of the addition word problems were in difficult order. The learning hierarchies of the addition word problems were “combine“ or “change 1”, “change 2”, “compare 1”, “equalicy 1”, “equalicy 1”, and “compare 2”. The research 2, based on the results of the research 1, was designed to explore the influence of the learning hierarchies on 32 mildly retarded students’ abilities in problem-solving. There were two experimental groups in these 32 students . In training stage, the group1 received the instruction of the lower learning hierarchies in problem-solving, and the group2 received the instruction of the higher learning hierarchies in problem-solving. In pre-test and post-test stages, both groups answered on both different levels of the difficulty in problem-solving. The scores of correct responses in problem-solving were used as the index of the improvement of the students. They were found that the instruction of the learning hierarchies could improve problem-solving performance of the students, and the improvement was not significant between the two groups. The research 3, based on the results of the research 2, was designed to investigate the effect of three problem-solving strategies for two of the mildly retarded students with serious problem-solving difficulties. These Strategies included the object strategy, the diagram strategy, and the cognitive strategy. An alternating treatment design was used. The percentage and rate of correct responses in problem-solving were used as the indexes of the improvement of the students. The clinical interviews and the protocol analysis were used to understand the error of the students’ problem-solving process . The main findings of this study were as follows: 1)during the instruction period , the correct percentage of the specific type of the problem was increased. But individual improved scores and problem-solving strategies were different. 2)after the instruction period, the percentage of correct responses of two students increased obviously, whether the rate of correct responses was increased during instruction stage and maintain stage. 3)during the transfer period, the performances of the students in both groups was not superior to that of the pre-test period. According to the aforementioned findings, application of the mathematical word problem instruction and further research were recommended.
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