[[abstract]]Based on the Vygotsky’s principle: zone of proximal development, according to Campione & Brown’s graduated prompting procedure, through the implement of pretest-learning-transfer-posttest, investigated 8th students’ conceptual change mechanism and mental models on buoyancy, developed a pretest to probe ninety six students’ misconception of buoyancy, and divided forty students into contrast and experiment group. These forty students all accepted pretest-posttest and interviews, the students of contrast group accepted the teaching of buoyancy exercises, the students of experiment group accepted hands-on activity and dynamic assessment of buoyancy. The research hands in 4 research purposes: (1) According to the results of tests and interviews, we can probe students’ misconception of buoyancy. (2) By assessing and interviewing students, investigated 8th students’ mental models on buoyancy. (3) Probing the variances of students’ misconception and mental models of buoyancy at dynamic assessment. (4) Studying the effect of non-dynamic assessment and dynamic assessment, which teaching method would promote students’ conceptual change and what mechanism is occurred. The results of this study revealed: by analyzing the results of pretest, we can divide students into volume, density, and complex conception types. Pass through dynamic assessment and non-dynamic assessment, the experimental group showed significant higher scores in test-3 and in volume content of test-3. The experimental group also showed significant higher scores in matter and process content of test-3. In understanding and applied level questions of test-3, the experimental group is significant better than contrast group. To the students of volume conception type, passing dynamic assessment and non-dynamic assessment, students’ mental models of experimental group turn to become density type, students’ mental models of contrast group become density or complex types. To the students of density conception type, experimental and contrast students become complex type. To the students of complex conception type, all students become density or complex types. In summary, dynamic assessment can promote students’ test scores. Referring mental models, dynamic assessment would enable students to become coincident mental models, non-dynamic assessment make students become intermix models.
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