[[abstract]]The purpose of this study is to investigate the important components that contribute toward the success of student’s science project in a science fair. We also try to analyze the mechanism of conceptual change and the characteristics in the case study. The scie ntific inquiry of science fairs is a kind of Kuhn's Normal Science. According to Kuhn's Normal Science, there are three class of problem: 1. determination of significant fact; 2.matching of facts with theory; 3.articulation of theory. This study based on Kuhn's normal science to analysis the dynamic process of the scientific inquiry in the science fairs. According the epistemology of practice, it addresses the process of dialectical between theory and practice; this study is to investigate the dynamic process of the conceptual change in student practice work. For the purposes of our study, we designed an interviewing in-depth semi-structure questionnaire. The study involved eleven teams who got the 41st national science fairs grand awards in the senior high school of Taiwan. Each team’s members have 1~2 teachers and 1~4 students, and all volunteered to participate in this study. Finding from this study are summarized as follow: 1. The research questions of students’ science fairs have categorized into three classes of problem of normal science, the pre-paradigm, and anomaly. In this study, seven research questions belong to the normal science problems. 2. For a good question, the most important is to find a paradigm that can guide the research. In the study, we find that teachers are posing six research questions. Teachers pose research questions based on scientific theory. On the contrary, students pose research questions based on phenomenon. We also find students’ scientific inquiry that is pose a question, modify the question, and give different kind of explanatory theory, let the incomplete evidences and theory can match well. 3. The core of scientific inquiry is a series of conceptual change, and the change is gradually and not as same as kuhn’s Gestalt switch. When the conflict is between theory and evidence, teachers and students usually consider the conflict coming from evidence, not the theory. Until the evidence repeatedly appears, the students started to modify the theory. Solving the conceptual conflict was the central elements of the power of research. 4. A Well-equipped external environment, such as supports from parents and corporative teamwork, can provide the students a good research situation for solving the research puzzles and for persistently doing the experiment. 5. Teachers and students think that lab work can provide an opportunity to practice experimental skill, but developing the scientific inquiry ability and to motivate students internal motivation should be promoted.
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