[[abstract]]The human functional system of thinking, as is mentioned in the literature on philosophy, world views and socio-psychology, consists of three elements: understanding, feelings, and intention, the so-called cognition, affection and conation, which contribute to the main performance of a complete personality. Moreover, when the three elements interact with each other in a harmonious manner, different aspects of thinking mechanism are therefore formed. This dissertation, of the multiple points of view, agrees to the quantitative atomism, with a conclusion that the intellectual performance of science knowledge may vary in the independent categories of meaning through the internal interactions of understanding, feelings, and intention for the learners. However, due to the various ways of performance in the functional system of thinking and based on the field of science education, I have done researches on the learners with doutbful/indoubtful viewpoints in the aspect of understanding, those with the influence of social constraints or personal self spontaneity in the aspect of feelings, and those with paradigmatic or narrative thinking in the aspect of intention. I, therefore, propose an intellectual model of knowledge construction for learners. Following the points mentioned above and the limitation and purpose of my study, I explore the main issue on the achievement for the learners who conform to the dominant eight knowledge construing models. The model of this study is mostly based on three of the paper tests: science-oriented test, hidden figures test and scientific test on reading & thinking, together with the help of protocol analysis. A two-approach exploration is thus established to obtain further understanding on the co-relationship between the constructing knowledge for learners and their achievement. The subjects are made up of 403 sophomores from National Taipei University of Technology. Three types of writing tests are undergone. After the subjects--invalid or not valid for the specimens--are carefully taken out, two subjects from each of the eight models which conform to the knowledge-constructive learners are selected for further protocol analysis. Some of the main conclusions include: a) There exists low co-relationship among the three tests: science-oriented test, hidden figures test and scientific test on reading and thinking. With difference so insignificant, the three tests can be considered to be three independent variables, the fact of which strengthens the coordinate theory of this dissertation, thus justifying my model of constructing knowledge for learners. b) Individual subjects, concerning even the same event, vary their viewpoints due to the alteration of time or space. But during a relative period of time, they tend to possess a stable mental viewpoints when it comes to a single event. c) The specimens students--who keep doubtful or indoubtful viewpoints--do not have significant learning achievements (whereas p=0.932 > 0.05). Those who are influenced by social constraints or personal self spontaneity do not have significant difference, either (whereas p=0.165 > 0.05). But those who are equipped with paradigmatic thinking or with narrative thinking, however, have much more significant difference (whereas p=0.000 <0.05). The entire performance for the eight models of learners differ a lot (whereas p=0.001 <0.05). Finally, by the two-way approaches on the basis of both quality and quantity, we have a better access to understand how learners obtain their learning achievements for those who keep specific knowledge-constructing models; besides, we also tend to know more why different learners in different knowledge-constructing models may have better or worse achievements in learning science.
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