[[abstract]]The Study of Influence Factors of Achievement in Organic Stereochemistry and Problem Solving Model Kun-Hsi Liao Abstract The purposes of this article were to investigate the factors that influence the achievement in organic stereochemistry and discuss the reasons of learning difficulty in this course. Approach from the information-processing aspect, researcher proposed four-factor variables, spatial ability, reasoning ability, learning strategies and chemical prior knowledge, to examine their relationships with organic stereochemistry achievement and their effecting path diagrams on each other. Then, in order to understand the grouping effect on organic stereochemitry learning, researcher compared the outcome differences among sex groups, class groups and achievement level groups on spatial ability test, reasoning ability test, learning strategies questionnaire, chemical prior knowledge test and organic stereochemistry achievement test. Lastly, researcher used thinking-aloud problem solving method to interview students and analyzed verbal data to understand students' problem behaviors, problem characteristics and problem models. 311 samples collected from three universities in northern part of Taiwan. They completed five test instruments and one hand on reading-material. Paper, pencil tests were analyzed by researcher in quantitative statistical method. Thirteen students, randomly selected from mother group, interviewed by researcher in organic stereochemistry problem solving. Recalling materials were translated to protocol data and analyzed by researcher for qualitative method. The research results indicated that all four-factor variables, spatial ability, reasoning ability, learning strategies and chemical prior knowledge, positively related to organic stereochemistry achievement. They could explain 25.7% of total variance. The path diagram, identified by Linear Structure Relationship (LISREL), indicated that spatial ability, learning strategies and chemical prior knowledge had a direct effect path on the organic stereochemistry; but the reasoning ability through the spatial ability and chemical prior knowledge had an indirect effect path on the organic stereoechemistry achievement. Test scores in sex, classes, and achievement level groups, compared by ANOVA, ANCOVA, and LISREL methods. The results indicated that male had higher scores than female on spatial ability test, reasoning ability test, learning strategies questionnaire, chemical prior knowledge test and organic stereochemistry achievement test. But when to the exclusion of three covariance factors, class, department and reasoning ability, male and female had no significant difference at p> .05 on all five tests and 14 sub-tests. When to the exclusion of two covariance factors, sex and department, class level group had a significant difference at p< .01 on the organic stereochemistry achievement test, while other tests had no significant difference. Achievement level groups were significantly different at the p< .01 level on all test scores. In the problem solving parts, the results indicated that the three different level students, high-, middle- and low- groups had apparent differences in problem behavior and problem characteristic. Those results were similar as in the quantitative analysis. In the problem model parts, researcher analyzed thirteen students' verbal data and found seven different types of problem models. Researcher found male and female had different problem solving style. Male used to solve problems with stereographic rotation method and female used two-dimensional picture. Conclusively, organic stereochemistry achievement was not only effected by individual cognitive factors but also by class, and problem solving skills. The learning difficulty and score depression in organic stereochemistry achievement were attributed to scantiness of cognitive abilities, inability of understanding entire chemical concepts and misconception on R, S configuration determination. These findings would help teachers' teaching and students' learning in organic chemistry and other science subject maters. Key Word：Organic stereochemistry achievement, spatial ability, reasoning ability, learning strategies, prior knowledge, problem solving model, LISREL.
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