[[abstract]]Based on social interaction theory and self-efficacy theory, this study tried to improve the self-efficacy and learning achievement of high school students in physics by forming ”physics development group”, and try to understand the reasons of the effect. For the purposes of the above, this research refined the Questionnaire of the Self-Efficacy in Physics. Three classes, 120 students participated in this study, and all their physics learning achievement data was collected. Among them twenty-four students participated voluntary in two development group as the experimental group, and the others as the contrast group. The former took group activities for four weeks: once a week, and each 150 minutes, in total 600 minutes. All the data collected was analyzed by independent sample t-test. The feedback questionnaire and the group discussion transcribed data were also provided as the evidence. The main findings were as follows: 1.In the experimental group 10 students promoted their self-efficacy in physics, while 14 students promoted their learning achievement in physics. 2.The self-efficacy of high school students in physics was approximately normal distributed. The average was higher than the expectation value. After 5 months, the self-efficacy in physics of 96 students in contrast group significantly regressed. 3.The development group promoted the self-efficacy of the students in experimental group, however not significantly. The development group promoted the self-efficacy significantly in high self-efficacy group. 4.The development group promoted the learning achievement of the students in experimental group, but not significantly. The development group promoted boys` learning achievement significantly meanwhile significantly negative influenced on the low self-efficacy girls’. 5.The high self-efficacy students used more “argumentation operation” to teach their peers in the group discussion. Since the teaching processes involved information rebuilding, thus their self-efficacy and learning achievement both progressed. Finally, based on the findings of this study, further discussions and suggestions were made.
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