[[abstract]]The genus Aspidistra (Liliaceae) in Taiwan was taxonomically revised based on morphological, palynological, phytogeographical and molecular studies. Three species, A. attenuata, A. daibuensis, and A. mushanensis, are recognized. Morphology of flower shape, the ratio of height (or length) to width of perianth tube, shape of the stigma, thickness of the lobes, and appendages are important characters for classification within the genus in Taiwan. The leaf morphology has variations, but still provides some useful information in identification. Pollen grains of all taxon are spheroidal, nonaperturate with verrucate exine sculpture. About reproductive biology, Aspidistra in Taiwan has two main flowering seasons, April to June and October to December. Pollinators could be the small arthropods. Geographically, all species in Taiwan are allopatric. In preliminary molecular study, we observed many copies with high variation in ITS, and the intergenic spacer of trnL-trnF and psbA-trnH each only having one variable site.
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