[[abstract]]The thesis is on qualitative research for the pretend play of children. The methods used include natural context observation, and was assisted with tape recording, video recording, note taking, refreshing, and interviewing children, teachers, and parents. The sample of the research are the children of a public kindergarten in Taipei county. The tool is the researcher herself, and during the observation, the researcher passively and low participated, and did not actively interact with others. After the ten-month fieldwork, the researcher analyzed the data gathered, and obtained the conclusion as follows: 1.) The proper language of teachers will encourage children in the pretend play. The direct participation of teachers not only improve the intimacy between teacher and children, but enrich the content of children's pretend play. 2.) During the interaction among peers, there would be children play the role as the "director". Beside of self-directing and playing, this type of children also instructed their partners of the same play; they worked on making-sense for the play together. 3.) In the aspect of object representation, from the situation of "the same object, various representation" and "various objects, same representation", we can see the difference between the real meaning of physical objects and the representative meaning of substitutive objects was getting larger and larger. Children rely less on the substitutive objects and fully expressed their thought. 4.) From the literature, objects of low reality could improve children's pretend play. However, the researcher found out that the "highly plastic" physical objects in daily life would also encourage children to join more pretend play. The content of their play was more close to the real life context, and put what they learned from daily life into practice. 5.) The other characteristic of pretend play is language. The most common language-transformation is the meta-communication during the play, and it includes arrangement of roles, designing the plots of the story, justification and identifying the symbolic objects, depends on the situation. A.) The most common roles are which of the family, but the arrangement might not be perfect at the beginning. Children would adjust their roles by group discussion. B.) As to the design of the story, most content were from children's life experiences. The design might not occur at the start; sometimes it would goes with "an aside". C.) As to justification, children would depend on tree aspects, "not true to the life", "not true to the fixed concept", and "not true to the role played", to revise; from the language of justification, we can know the development of children's concept on rules. Moreover, the children who were justified and the other ones, could build correct ideas and knowledge together through this meta-comimmication, and improve their ability to imagine. D.) identification of the symbolic objects is to abstract the real mearung of the objects, and give them symbolic meanings that is proper to the plots. In the pretend play, children would use some symbolic gestures because of the lack of the real context. The create of the symbolic meaning came from experiences, and the use of physical objects would reduce. During the transformation, children gradually learn to use language to express their ideas about objects, gestures, and context. 6.) The use of interjection made the actions more likely to be true. 7.) The participant of imagined partners not only enriched the plots and roles, but also provided the opportunity to understand children's language ability. Children could express their anxiety with the imagined partners, so the partners played important roles in the pretend play. 8.) The topics of children's play changed form "family life", "school affairs", to "special affairs" and "TV media influences". Children's life experiences influenced the content of their play. However, children learned how the rules go in life at the same time by play different roles. It shows the best example that learning from life.
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