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跨地區新聞輿論監督對中國社會主義民主之衝擊---一個兼具質與量的考察

By 王毓莉

Abstract

[[abstract]]中國大陸在改革開放的整體佈局中,傳播媒介因具有產業性被列入「第三產業」, 屬於經改的一環,也必須產生變革。而在新聞改革過程中,出現了「新聞輿論監督」的 報導。 儘管中共的新聞輿論監督與西方的觀念不盡相同,但是在原先「輿論一律」的中國 大陸市場中,出現了批評的聲音,受到閱聽眾大大的歡迎。而新聞輿論監督的出現,同 時滿足了傳媒的兩方面需求,一方面是滿足商業化後,貼近民眾的需求;另一方面則是 對於不利改革因素的監督,滿足了官方對傳媒的期望。 中國大陸的新聞輿論監督,被認為是一種執政者權力(power)的延伸,而非公民 權利(right)的執行。不過,在新聞輿論監督發展的過程中,產生了「邊際效應」,也 就是說,在延伸政權權力,對不同事務做輿論監督時,同時也產生傳媒對於權力自身監 督的反撲現象。 新聞輿論監督中有一類報導屬於「跨地區新聞輿論監督」,也就是媒體針對不同於 傳媒所在地的政府與社會事務,做出新聞輿論監督。中國的新聞媒體所有權與管轄權, 均屬於地方政府與中央雙重管控,但是透過「跨地區監督」的發展型態,正好可以避免 中國大陸媒體管理體制的盲點,對於其他省份的弊案提出監督。然而此一類型的報導, 因為諸侯經濟勢力抬頭,要求中共中央取消「跨地區新聞輿論監督」的報導。因此,本 研究除了希望透過《南方周末》的表現,了解跨地區新聞輿論監督的現況與轉變,並且 探討該類報導對於中共中央與地方政經發展的影響,以及對社會主義民主的衝擊。 本研究問題如下: 問題一:中國大陸《南方周末》在新聞輿論監督方面,表現為何? 問題二:中國大陸《南方周末》中,跨地區新聞輿論監督的廣度、深度與 強度為何? 問題三:2005 年5 月中共禁止媒體進行跨地區輿論前後,《南方周末》中跨 地區新聞輿論監督表現的具體變化? 問題四:中國跨地區新聞輿論監督,如何影響中央與地方、以及各省間的發展關係? 問題五:探討中國跨地區新聞輿論監督,對於社會主義民主的衝擊為何? 本研究將運用「文獻探討法」、「內容分析法」、與「深度訪談法」,試圖了解中國大 陸傳媒商業化之後,在商業化與政治力兩股拉力下,新聞輿論監督與跨地區新聞輿論監 督的表現如何,而跨地區新聞輿論監,是否對於中國大陸中央與地方關係、各省間的關 係產生影響,最後對於社會主義民主,產生怎樣的衝擊。 Under the arrangements of mainland China’s Reform and Opening up Policy, the mass media has been listed as the third tertiary industry due to its industrial nature . Along with press reform, “news supervision by public opinion” has emerged in mainland China. Although mainland China’s definition of news supervision by public opinion is somewhat different from the western definition, the emergence of media criticism under unified national public opinion is quite welcome by the audience. News supervision by public opinion, on one hand, draws the media close to the audience and fulfills the needs of media commercialization, and on the other hand, manages disadvantageous reform factors and fulfills the government’s expectations. News supervision by public opinion in mainland China is considered an extension of the power of the government's authority, and not an execution of citizen rights. However, the process of news supervision by the public develops a “marginal utility "effect. That is, it extends the power of the political authorities, whenever there is the supervision by public opinion; it also directs surveillance back on to political authorities themselves. One type of news supervision by public opinion has been labelled “cross-regional”. This consists of the mass media watching over governements in different regions. As the mass media is owned by both the central and local governemnts, it would be forbidden for them to supervise their authority. Cross-regional news supervision could break this restriction and play a watchdog role over other local governments. Along with the power of locat government increasing, they try to put pressure on central government to cease the cross-regional news supervision. The research questions are as follows: Q1: How did the news supervision by public opinion of “Southern Weekly” perform in mainland China?” Q2: How wide, in-depth and intense was the cross-regional news supervision by public opinion of the “Southern Weekly” in mainland China? Q3:What were the differences in news supervision by public opinion of the “Southern Weekly” after the ban of cross-regional news supervision in May 2005? Q4:What effect does cross-regional news supervision by public opinion have on the relationships between central and local governments, and between the provinces? Q5:What impact does cross-regional news supervision by public opinion have on socialist democracy in mainland China? This study includes a literature review and employs content analysis and in-depth interview as its research methods. It aims to discover the performance of news supervision and cross-regional news supervision by public opinion under the dual influence of media commercialization and the political regime

Topics: 新聞輿論監督, 跨地區新聞輿論監督, 《南方周末》, 社會主義民主
Year: 2009
OAI identifier: oai:http://ir.lib.pccu.edu.tw/:987654321/2115
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