Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Characterisation and Development of Nanostructured, Ultrahigh Strength, and Ductile Bainitic Steels

By Mohamed Sherif


The purpose of the present work was to characterise and further develop a novel nanostructured type of bainitic steel. Three chemical compositions were considered with different concentrations of Al and Co. The addition of Al and Co is believed to be necessary to produce the desired nanostructure at very low temperatures within a reasonable transformation time. An overview of the mechanical performance of fully bainitic steels vs other steel systems is presented in Chapter 1. An introduction to metallurgical concepts regarding the design and performance of bainite steels is presented in Chapters 1 and 2. Chapter 2 focuses on the design concepts by which the steel chemical composition was optimised, primarily on the basis of cost and the avoidance of carbide precipitation. Chapter 3 deals with the evolution of the microstructure during uniaxial tension, studied using X-ray diffraction. The effect of tempering deformed and undeformed structures, and heating to high temperatures, have also been investigated. In this context, data on bainite-containing steels in the literature are found to be rather limited. Chapter 4 is a comprehensive assessment of the mechanical behaviour of the steels subjected to a variety of processing routes. It is demonstrated that it is possible to outperform current commercially available steels. The microstructural behaviour of strain-aged and as-transformed steels during uniaxial tension studied using in situ neutron diffraction is described in Chapter 5. The evolution of texture with plastic deformation was confirmed as previously observed using conventional X-ray analysis. Evidence regarding the presence of two populations of carbon-depleted and carbon-rich austenite and their response to strain, grain rotation, anisotropy, stress partitioning between phases and the lack of work-hardening to overcome the onset of necking are presented

Publisher: Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy
Year: 2006
OAI identifier:
Provided by: Apollo

Suggested articles


  1. (1967). A Hand Book
  2. (2001). A new emperical formula for the bainite upper temperature limit of steel.
  3. (2003). A physically based model for TRIP-aided carbon steels behaviour. doi
  4. (1981). A rationalisation of shear transformations in steels. doi
  5. (2003). Acceleration of low-temperature bainite. doi
  6. (1997). Aging and tempering behavior of iron-nickel-carbon and iron-carbon martensite. doi
  7. (2005). An assessment of interfacial dissipation eects at reconstructive ferrite-austenite interfaces. doi
  8. (2005). Analysis of lattice parameter changes following deformation of a 0.19C-1.63Si-1.59Mn transformation-induced plasticity sheet steel. doi
  9. (1992). Analysis of the kinetics of phase transformations. doi
  10. (2002). Aspects of the surface relief de of bainite. doi
  11. (1995). Austenite in bainitic microstructures. doi
  12. (1983). Bainite in silicon steels: new composition-property approach Part 1. doi
  13. (1983). Bainite in silicon steels: new composition-property approach Part 2. doi
  14. (2001). Bainite in Steels. doi
  15. (1999). Bainite transformation of low carbon MnSi TRIP-assisted multiphase steels: in uence of silicon content on cementite precipitation and austenite retention. doi
  16. (1999). Bainite transformation temperatures in high-silicon steels. doi
  17. Bainite: An atom-probe study of the incomplete reaction phenomenon. doi
  18. (1965). Bainitic structures and thermomechanical treatments applied to steel.
  19. (2000). Bulk nanostructured materials from severe plastic deformation. doi
  20. (2003). Carbon partitioning into austenite after martensite transformation. doi
  21. (2002). Characterization of the metastable austenite in low-alloy FeCMnSi TRIP-aided steel by neutron diraction. doi
  22. (1958). Choice of collimators for a crystal spectrometer for neutron diraction. doi
  23. (2005). Continuous magnetic method for quantitative monitoring of martensitic transformation in steels containing metastable austenite. doi
  24. (2003). Contribution to The Physical Metallurgy of Crash-resistant Galvanized TRIP-assisted Steel for Automotive Structures.
  25. (1989). Correction for preferred orientation in Rietveld re doi
  26. (1986). Correction of intensities for preferred orientation in powder diractometry: doi
  27. (1999). Correction of zero shift in powder diraction patterns using the re ection-pair method.
  28. (1989). Coupled diusional/displacive transformations. doi
  29. (1972). Crystal structure and morphology of the carbide precipitated from martensitic high carbon steel during the rst stage of tempering. doi
  30. (1988). Crystal structures of quartz and magnesium germanate by pro analysis of Synchrotronradiation high-resolution powder data. doi
  31. (1999). De Cooman. The in uence of the substitution of Si by Al on the properties of cold rolled C-Mn-Si TRIP steels. doi
  32. (2001). Decomposition of iron-based martensite. A kinetic analysis by means of dierential scanning calorimetry and dilatometry.
  33. (2001). Design of novel high strength bainitic steels: Part 1. doi
  34. (2001). Design of novel high strength bainitic steels: Part 2. doi
  35. (2003). Development of hard bainite. doi
  36. (2003). Dierential Scanning Calorimetry. doi
  37. (1992). Ductility and strain-induced transformation in a high-strength transformationinduced plasticity-aided dual-phase steel. doi
  38. (1989). Eect of elastic anisotropy on the lattice strains in polycristalline metals and composites measured by neutron diraction. doi
  39. (2004). Eect of microstructure on the stability of retained austenite in transformationinduced-plasticity steels. doi
  40. (1997). Eect of microstructure on transformation-induced plasticity of silicon-containing low-alloy steel. doi
  41. (1989). Eect of phosphorus on the formation of retained austenite and mechanical properties in Sicontaining low-carbon steel sheet. doi
  42. (1983). Eect of retained austenite on the yielding and deformation behaviour of a dual phase steel. doi
  43. (1991). Eect of silicon and manganese addition on mechanical properties of high-strength hot-rolled sheet steel containing retained austenite. doi
  44. (2003). Eects of prestraining on high-cycle fatigue strength of high-strength low alloy TRIP-aided steels. doi
  45. (1993). Eects of second phase morphology on retained austenite morphology and tensile properties in a TRIP-aided Dual-phase steel sheet. doi
  46. (2004). Eects of volume fraction and stability of retained austenite on formability in a 0.1C-1.5Si1.5Mn-0.5Cu TRIP-aided cold-rolled steel sheet. doi
  47. (2001). Elements of X-ray Diraction.
  48. (1987). Enhancement of elongation by retained austenite in intercritical annealed 0.4C-1.5Si-0.8Mn steel. doi
  49. (1998). Enhancement of the mechanical properties of a low-carbon, low-silicon steel by formation of a multiphased microstructure containing retained austenite. doi
  50. (1992). Epsilon carbide precipitation during tempering of plain carbon martensite. doi
  51. (2003). Experimental investigation of the in uence of the austenite grain size on the mechanism and kinetics of the bainite transformation in steels. doi
  52. (1979). fn: A criterion for rating powder diraction patterns and evaluating the reliability of powder-pattern indexing. doi
  53. Formation mechanism of bainitic ferrite in an doi
  54. (2002). Formation of bainite as a diusionaldisplacive phase transformation. doi
  55. (2002). High tensile ductility in a nanostructured metal. doi
  56. (2002). In Situ deformation behavior of retained austenite in TRIP steel. doi
  57. (2001). In situ neutron diraction study of -Fe-Cr-Ni alloys under tensile deformation. doi
  58. (2005). In situ X-ray diraction measurements of deformation-induced austenite martensite transformation in a multiphase TRIP steel. doi
  59. (1991). In uence of C content and annealing temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of 400C transformed steel containing retained austenite. doi
  60. (2001). Initial stages of Fe-C martensite decomposition. doi
  61. (1992). Intercritically annealed and isothermally transformed 0.15 pct C steels containing 1.2 pct Si1.5 pct Mn and 4 pct Ni: Part I. transformation, microstructure, and room-temperature mechanical properties. doi
  62. (2001). Internal friction in a martensitic high-carbon steel. doi
  63. (2004). Interplay of stresses induced by phase transformation and plastic deformation during cyclic load of austenitic stainless steel. doi
  64. (2005). Introduction to the Characterization of Residual Stress by Neutron Diraction. doi
  65. (1996). Introduction to X-ray Powder Diractometry. doi
  66. (1998). Iron and Steel Society/AIME.
  67. (1965). Kinetics of Phase Transformation in Metals.
  68. Kinetics of strain-induced martensitic nucleation. doi
  69. (1946). Kinetics of the decomposition of austenite.
  70. (2002). Low temperature bainite. doi
  71. Mechanical alloying and milling. doi
  72. (2004). Mechanical behaviour of steels with mixed microstructures.
  73. (2001). Mechanical properties and phase transformations of an aluminum al-BIBLIOGRAPHY 148 loyed TRIP steel.
  74. (1991). Mechanical properties and retained austenite in intercritically heat-treated bainitetransformed steel and their variation with Si and Mn additions. doi
  75. (2003). Mechanical properties of low-temperature bainite. doi
  76. (1998). Metallographic methods for reveal-BIBLIOGRAPHY 160 ing the multiphase microstructure of TRIP-assisted steels. doi
  77. (2002). Metallurgy of continuously annealed high strength TRIP steel sheet.
  78. (2002). Nanomaterial advantage. doi
  79. Neutron-diraction study of stress-induced martensitic transformation in TRIP steel. doi
  80. (1993). Observation of deformation and transformation behavior of retained austenite in a 0.14C-BIBLIOGRAPHY 149 1.2Si-1.5Mn steel with ferrite-bainite-austenite structure. doi
  81. (2003). On the in uence of aluminium and silicon contents on the kinetics of bainite transformation of intercritical austenite. doi
  82. (2001). On the in uence of interactions between phases on the mechanical stability of retained austenite in transformation-induced plasticity multiphase steels. doi
  83. (2001). On the sources of work hardening in multiphase steels assisted by transformation-induced plasticity. doi
  84. (2002). Paradigm shift for bainite. doi
  85. (2004). Partitioning of carbon from supersaturated plates of ferrite, with applica-BIBLIOGRAPHY 145 tion to steel processing and fundamentals of the bainite transformation. doi
  86. (1981). Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys. doi
  87. (1978). Physical Metallurgy and The Design of Steels.
  88. (1995). Plastic stability of retained austenite in the cold-rolled 0.14%C-1.9%Si-1.7%Mn sheet steel. doi
  89. (1987). Quantitative phase analysis from neutron powder diraction data using the Rietveld method. doi
  90. (2000). Retained austenite characteristics and tensile properties in a TRIP type bainitic sheet steel. doi
  91. (1997). Retained austenite characteristics in thermodynamically processed Si-Mn transformationinduced plasticity steels. doi
  92. (1990). Rolling/sliding wear behaviour of three bainitic steels. Private communication, doi
  93. (2004). Shock and Ballistic Properties of Bainitic Steels.
  94. (1990). Simultaneous peak-shift correction in the least-squares determination of unit-cell parameters of a sample with standard reference material. doi
  95. (2004). Stability of retained austenite in TRIP-assisted steels. doi
  96. (2002). Steels for rails. doi
  97. (1995). Steels, Microstructure and Properties. doi
  98. (1970). Strain tempering of bainite in 9Ni-4Co-0.45C steel.
  99. (1970). Strain tempering of bainite.
  100. (2003). Strain-induced transformation of very strong metal. Master's thesis,
  101. (1973). Strength and toughness of Fe-10Ni alloys containing doi
  102. (1981). Structure-property relationships in commercial low-alloy bainitic-austenitic steel with high strength, ductility, and toughness. doi
  103. (2004). Tempering of hard mixture of bainitic ferrite and austenite. doi
  104. (1972). Tempering of steel. doi
  105. (2004). Tensile bahavior of TRIP-aided multi-phase steels studied by in situ neutron diraction. doi
  106. (2004). The bainite transformation stage in the processing of TRIP-aided sheet steels. doi
  107. (1999). The bainite transformation: unresolved issues. doi
  108. (2001). The developments of cold-rolled TRIP-assisted multiphase steels. Al-alloyed TRIP-assisted multiphase steels. doi
  109. (2001). The developments of Cold-rolled TRIP-assisted multiphase steels. Low silicon TRIP-assisted multiphase steels. doi
  110. (2000). The eect of compressive deformation of austenite on the bainitic ferrite transformation in Fe-Mn-Si-C steels. doi
  111. (1967). The enhancement of ductility in high-strength steels.
  112. (1995). The in uence of bainite on retained austenite characteristics in Si-Mn TRIP steels. doi
  113. (1980). The mechanism of bainite formation in steels. doi
  114. (1982). The Physical Metallurgy of Steels. doi
  115. (1958). The Powder Method in X-ray Crystallography. doi
  116. (1969). The signi of texture parameters in phase analysis by X-ray diraction.
  117. (1993). The use of pattern decomposition to study the combined X-ray diraction eects of crystallite size and stacking faults in ex-oxalate zinc oxide. doi
  118. Theoritical study of P-containing transformation-induced plasticity steel { part 1: Determination of the phosphorus concentration.
  119. (2001). Theoritical study of P-containing transformation-induced plasticity steel { part 2: Analysis of the potential TRIP eect.
  120. (2004). Thermal analysis of low alloy Cr-Mo steel.
  121. (1966). Thermodynamics of the austenite-proeutectoid ferrite transformation: Fe-C alloys.
  122. (2004). Three-dimensional atom probe analysis of carbon distribution in lowtemperature bainite. doi
  123. (1967). Transformation and Hardenability in Steels. Climax Molybdenum Corporation,
  124. Transformation of retained austenite during tempering of high carbon steel. doi
  125. (2004). Transformation-induced plasticity for high strength formable steels. doi
  126. (1987). TRIP and its kinetic aspects in austempered 0.4C-1.5Si-0.8Mn steel. doi
  127. (1999). TRIP steel with reduced silicon content.
  128. (2002). TRIP-assisted steels? doi
  129. (1997). Use of Rietveld re for elastic macrostrain determination and for evaluation of plastic strain history from diraction spectra. doi
  130. (2004). Very strong bainite. doi
  131. (2002). Very strong low temperature bainite. doi
  132. (2004). X-ray diraction analysis of a severely plastically deformed aluminum alloy. doi
  133. (1954). X-ray Diraction Procedures.
  134. (1953). X-ray line broadening from aluminium and wolfram. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.