Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) represent a specific class of monooxygenases that are capable of catalyzing a variety of oxidation reactions, including Baeyer–Villiger oxidations. The recently elucidated BVMO crystal structures have provided a more detailed insight into the complex mechanism of these flavin-containing enzymes. Biocatalytic studies on a number of newly discovered BVMOs have shown that they are very potent oxidative biocatalysts. In addition to catalyzing the regio- and enantioselective Baeyer–Villiger oxidations of a wide range of carbonylic compounds, epoxidations, and enantioselective sulfoxidations have also been shown to be part of their catalytic repertoire. This review provides an overview on the recent developments in BVMO-mediated biocatalytic processes, identification of the catalytic role of these enzymes in metabolic routes and prodrug activation, as well as the efforts in developing effective biocatalytic methodologies to apply BVMOs for the synthesis of high added value compounds.
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